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Cultplan Meeting Rovigo 3rd–6th May 2006. Theoretical Framework. Theoretical Framework Intention. Theoretical framework: Use of theories to achieve more focus and to collect data (in order to formulate questions) Theories are providing angles and starting points for data collection

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Cultplan Meeting

Rovigo 3rd–6th May 2006

Theoretical Framework

theoretical framework intention
Theoretical Framework Intention

Theoretical framework:

  • Use of theories to achieve more focus and to collect data (in order to formulate questions)
  • Theories are providing angles and starting points for data collection
  • Theories encompass matters of culture, co-operation, communication and interaction and management aspects (related to social capital)
  • Prism approach
theoretical framework prism approach

Cultural theory

Cooperation theories

Communication and interpretation theories

Codes of acting

Governance approach

Social capital

Management theories

Role of cultural context and differences in INTERREG planning processes?

Data collection

Theoretical Framework Prism Approach
theoretical framework what has been done so far
Theoretical Framework What has been done so far?
  • Desciption of each theory
  • Appraisal/validation of each theory: Reference to culture on different levels
  • Relevance for CULTPLAN
theoretical framework open question operationalisation
Theoretical FrameworkOpen Question: Operationalisation
  • How to relate theories for composing a consistent theoretical framework?
  • How to make theories available for the empirical research?
  • Developing an operationable “analytic tool” to analyse cultural differences and to analyse how culture manifests, interferes and influences processes of collaboration
  • Basis/starting point is the Cultural Theory of Gullestrup
theoretical framework analytical tool starting point
Theoretical Framework Analytical tool: starting point

Cultural Theory (Gullestrup)

  • Analytical model to analyse the complexity of cross-cultural studies
  • Better understanding of the different elements of culture
    • Horizontal dimension of culture
    • Vertical dimension of culture
theoretical framework cultural theory gullestrup
Theoretical FrameworkCultural Theory (Gullestrup)

Horizontal dimension of culture

  • Based on 8 cultural segments
    • Technology
    • Economic, social and political institutions
    • Language and communication
    • Reproduction and socialisation
    • Ideology
    • Religious
  • Cultural segments are manifested at the same level
  • “sectoral” and “observable” cultural traits
theoretical framework cultural theory gullestrup8
Theoretical FrameworkCultural Theory (Gullestrup)

Vertical dimension of culture

  • “Visible” cultural traits as expression or symbol of the more fundamental cultural traits (or philosophy)
  • Hierarchy of cultural observations
  • Based on 6 different levels of culture
    • Immediately observable symbols or symptoms
    • Structures that are to difficult to observe
    • Governing morals, patterns and norms
    • Partially legitimating values
    • Generally accepted highest values
    • Fundamental philosophy of life
theoretical framework cultural theory gullestrup9
Theoretical FrameworkCultural Theory (Gullestrup)
  • Better understanding of the different elements of culture
    • Horizontal dimension of culture / manifested part of culture
    • Vertical dimension of culture / fundamental part of culture
  • Theory seems to be adequate to analyse (1) manifested/visible part of culture and (2) fundamental/hidden part of culture in INTERREG projects
theoretical framework analytical tool modules

Group culture

Culture as a product of a social group

(e.g. working culture INTERREG-project)

“social system” culture

Culture as a product of a social system

(e.g. planning culture)

societal culture

Culture as a product of society

(e.g. social norms and general patterns)

Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical Tool: Modules

Module 1: Distinction of culture

theoretical framework analytical tool

Cross cultural items

(start-up meeting, excursions, decisions, working structures (reliability, accuracy))

  • Analytical tool
  • contains level of group, social system and society
  • observable and hidden aspects of culture
  • horizontal aspects of culture which are vertically stratified

Cultural specifics

(cultural phenomena, narratives, cultural mechanisms and cultural dilemmas)

Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical Tool

Module 2: Focus on cross cultural items

theoretical framework analytical tool12
Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical Tool

Module 3: Analytical tool and theoretical framework

Cross-cultural item

Value oriented:

Which values are at stake?

Societal culture

Work culture in INTERREG-team

Planning culture, related to case

  • Analysis of cross cultural items by INTERREG group culture, planning culture and societal culture
  • Analysis through horizontal and vertical aspects of culture
theoretical framework analytical tool relation to cultural theory
Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical tool (relation to Cultural Theory)

Horizontal dimensions of INTERREG-group culture

  • Culture of signification (e.g. working with planning concepts)
  • Working habits/traditions
  • Communication/negotiation culture
theoretical framework analytical tool relation to cultural theory14
Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical tool (relation to Cultural Theory)

Horizontal dimensions of planning culture

  • Political culture
  • Administrative culture
  • Knowledge/information/innovation culture
theoretical framework analytical tool relation to cultural theory15
Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical tool (relation to Cultural Theory)

Horizontal dimensions of societal culture

  • Distribution of resources
  • Social institutions for living together
  • Power relations (who controls whom?)
  • Dissemination of knowledge, ideas and values
theoretical framework analytical tool relation to cultural theory16
Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical tool (relation to Cultural Theory)

Vertical dimensions

  • Observable symbols or symptoms
  • Governing morals, patterns and norms
  • General accepted highest values
  • Fundamental philosophy of life
  • Valid for group culture, social system culture and societal culture
theoretical framework analytical tool17

Cross-cultural item

Value oriented:

Which values are at stake?

Societal culture

Planning culture, related to case

Work culture inINTERREG-team

  • Structuration theory
  • Governance
  • Trust
  • Structuration theory
  • Governance
  • Semiosis theory
  • Negotiation theory
  • Social capital
  • Management theories
Theoretical FrameworkAnalytical Tool

Module 3: Analytical tool and theoretical framework

theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework

Discussion of the analytical tool!

Feel free for

  • questions
  • comments and recommendations
  • conclusions
theoretical framework continuation of theories
Theoretical Frameworkcontinuation of theories
  • Theory of semiosis
  • Taxanomic approach
  • Theory of negotiation
  • Theory of structuration
  • Theory on congruence and learning
  • Governance
  • Theory on bonding and bridging capital
  • Trust
theoretical framework communication and interpretation theory
Theoretical FrameworkCommunication and Interpretation Theory

Theory of Semiosis (Peirce)

  • Interpretation of signs
  • Sign systems: sign, object and interpretation
    • Sign: the possible being/availability as object of our thoughts
    • Object: the actual being/availability
    • Interpretation: the representation of the necessary or justified practical consequences
  • Addition to Cultural Theory (by assisting the process of interpretation by another culture)
theoretical framework communication and interpretation theory21
Theoretical FrameworkCommunication and Interpretation Theory

Taxanomic approach (Sarbaugh)

  • Taxanomy of intercultural communication
  • Classifying along a continuum of homogeneity and heterogeneity
  • Dimension of
    • Worldview (set of beliefs about the nature of life)
    • Normative patterns of beliefs and behaviour
    • Code system (verbal and non-verbal communication)
    • Perceived relation and intent (compatibility of goals, hierarchy of relationship and positiveness or negativeness of feelings)
theoretical framework communication and interpretation theory22
Theoretical FrameworkCommunication and Interpretation Theory

Taxanomic approach (Sarbaugh)

  • Level of interculturalness is low and communication will proceed with minimum effort and maximum accuracy, when participants are highly similar with regard to these dimensions
  • Communication difficulty increases as the level of interculturalness increases

(that is, as participants are more heterogeneous along the dimensions presented)

  • Addition to Cultural Theory(by assisting the process of interpretation through focussing on intercultural communication)
theoretical framework theory of negotiation scharpf
Theoretical FrameworkTheory of negotiation (Scharpf)
  • Coordination of different interests
  • Analysis of the negotiating positions of the participants in INTERREG-projects and to develop solutions for better cooperation
  • Cooperation depends on 3 styles of interaction:
    • Individualistic/egocentric
    • Cooperative
    • Competitive
  • “Dilemma of cooperation”
theoretical framework theory of negotiation scharpf24
Theoretical FrameworkTheory of negotiation (Scharpf)
  • Strategies for handling the dilemma of cooperation
    • Distinction of general and explicit problem solution
    • Integration of different conflict levels
    • Expansion of the “solution corridor” (win-win-situations)
    • Variation of the decision procedure and sequence
    • Institutionalisation of cooperation (as expression of social capital)
  • Strategies can be used as “indicators” to analyse why coordination and cooperation is successful in some projects and less successful in others?
theoretical framework codes of acting
Theoretical FrameworkCodes of acting

Theory of structuration (Giddens)

  • Every actor is supposed to act in a rather fluent current of actions
  • Important: duality of structure with regard to individual acting
  • Structure is (1) partly the result of acting but also (2) partly the determinant of acting
  • Question: How can individuals reflect the duality of structure?
theoretical framework codes of acting26
Theoretical FrameworkCodes of acting

Theory of structuration (Giddens)

  • Knowledge ability (of individuals)
    • Practical consciousness (implicit knowledge of how to operate )
    • Discoursive consciousness (explicit statements of how things should go according to rules)
    • Dimension of unconscious motives and repressive mechanisms
  • Structuration theory seems to be adequate to differ between formalities (practical and discoursive consciousness) and informalities of planning (more or less unconscious)
theoretical framework codes of acting27
Theoretical FrameworkCodes of acting

Theory on congruence and learning (Argyris/Schön)

  • Explanation of the phenomenon of disharmony between thinking one way and acting another way in collaboration processes

(to analyse individual acting that cannot be explained in another way)

    • Individuals try to maintain their values within acceptable range and therefore use strategies
    • Strategies will have both intended and unintended consequences
    • Consequences on the fundamental values and strategies of the individual acting (e.g. to act in another way as negotiated) as well as on the values and strategies of the other partners
theoretical framework governance

P

Inter-communal cooperation

Citizen’s commune

Public-Private-Partnership

S

E

Commitment of civil society

Regional corporate networks

Corporate Citizenship

Theoretical FrameworkGovernance
  • Alternative model for managing collective affairs
  • Focussing on the embeddedness of actors and the collaboration of different actors in co-operation processes
theoretical framework governance29
Theoretical FrameworkGovernance
  • Pattern of actor networks and relations can be used for the analysis of the formal conditions of planning culture
    • Analysing structures of interaction and collaboration of institutions,
    • Identifying and analysing networks and stable information and communication relationships within existing institutional framework
    • Analysing decision and steering structures of each partner
    • identifying of complex sets of objectives, negotiation processes, resources or other conditions which determine activities of each actor in relation to other actors (vertical or horizontal)
theoretical framework governance30
Theoretical FrameworkGovernance
  • Focussing on the embeddedness of actors and the collaboration of different actors in co-operation processes
  • Theoretical approach of Governance seems to be adequate for the analysis of the formal conditions of planning culture in INTERREG-projects
theoretical framework social capital
Theoretical FrameworkSocial capital

Bonding and bridging social capital (Putnam)

  • Stock of active connections among people that bind the members of communities and enables cooperative action
    • Trust
    • Mutual understanding
    • Shared values and behaviours
  • Bonding capital: refers to the value assigned to social networks between homogeneous groups
  • Bridging capital: refers to the value assigned to social networks between heterogeneous groups
theoretical framework social capital32
Theoretical FrameworkSocial capital

Bonding and bridging social capital (Putnam)

  • Bridging capital: hosting of other benefits for societies, governments, individuals etc.
  • Use of theory for the interpretation of the relations within an (international) project team and its direct surroundings
theoretical framework social capital33
Theoretical FrameworkSocial capital

Trust

  • Trust: subjective belief in the correctness or truth of actions and understandings of individuals
    • Trust in environment and infrastructure
    • Trust in potential partners
    • Trust in relationships
    • Trust in warrantors and authorities (if any)
  • Trust as assumption and as developer of cooperation
theoretical framework social capital34
Theoretical FrameworkSocial capital

Trust

  • Developing trust is bounded to conditions:
    • Institutional-based trust or system trust
    • Personal trust (process-based trust and characteristic-based trust)
  • Trust is important condition for (intercultural) cooperation
  • Importance of personal trust for collaboration in INTERREG-projects