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Li-Ion Myth-Buster

Li-Ion Myth-Buster

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Li-Ion Myth-Buster

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  1. Li-Ion Myth-Buster Poking holes intosome common beliefs about Li-Ion cells and Li-Ion BMSs. Davide Andrea Elithion - Electronics for Lithium Ion Battery Power Conference 2010, 1,

  2. EXTRA! EXTRA! As heard this morning: "With few large format cells,each cell is monitored. With many small format cells,monitoring each cell is impractical." Battery Power Conference 2010, 2,

  3. EXTRA! EXTRA! The same BMS with work equally well with both formats. FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 3,

  4. Myths A) Cells B) Batteries C) BMS D) Balancing Battery Power Conference 2010, 4,

  5. A: Cell myths A: cell myths Group A: Myths about Li-Ion cells - Cell capacity myths - Cell swelling myths Battery Power Conference 2010, 5,

  6. Charge efficiency A: cell myths Myth A1: "A cell puts out less charge than you put into it" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 6,

  7. Charge efficiency A: cell myths Li-Ion charge efficiency = 100 %: Every electron that goes in can come back out (Though, energy efficiency is < 100 %)‏ Battery Power Conference 2010, 7,

  8. Charge efficiency A: cell myths 1 A in for 1 hour, 1 A out for 1 hour SOC: 100 %, to 0 %, back to 100 %:charge efficiency is 100 % Charge voltage is higher than OCV, lower during discharge Charge power is more than discharge power Energy doesn't go back down to 0: energy efficiency is < 100 % Battery Power Conference 2010, 8,

  9. Capacity vs rate A: cell myths Myth A2: "Cell capacity depends on rate of discharge" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 9,

  10. Capacity vs rate A: cell myths Yes, at high discharge a fixed cutout will stop discharge sooner Battery Power Conference 2010, 10,

  11. Capacity vs rate A: cell myths But the rest is still there; you can still get it out, with a constant voltage load. Battery Power Conference 2010, 11,

  12. Capacity vs rate A: cell myths But the rest is still there; you can still get it out, with a lower cutout Battery Power Conference 2010, 12,

  13. Capacity vs cycles A: cell myths Myth A3: "Cell capacity decreases with number of cycles" MIX Battery Power Conference 2010, 13,

  14. Capacity vs cycles A: cell myths Degradation = capacity loss Higher resistance + fixed cutoffs = unused capacity Battery Power Conference 2010, 14,

  15. C: BMS myths C: BMS myths Group C: "I don't need a BMS" myths - Cutoff myth - Small SOC range myth - Extra cells myth Battery Power Conference 2010, 15,

  16. No BMS: I use a cutoff C: BMS myths C1: "I don't need a BMSmy charger has a high voltage limit" C2: "I don't need a BMSmy load has a low voltage cut-off" FALSE FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 16,

  17. No BMS: I use a cutoff C: BMS myths There's no way of knowing the state of individual cells from the pack voltage. 13.2 Vtot 13.2 Vtot 13.2 Vtot 3.3 V 2.9 V 3.8 V 3.3 V 4.5 V 1.8 V 3.3 V 2.9 V 3.8 V 3.3 V 2.9 V 3.8 V Battery Power Conference 2010, 17,

  18. No BMS: I use a cutoff C: BMS myths Top balancing won't help Fully charged, Top balanced Discharged. One has low capacity Discharged. All same capacity 14.4 Vtot 11.2 Vtot = LV cutoff 11.2 Vtot = LV cutoff 3.6 V 3.2 V 2.8 V 3.6 V 1.6 V 2.8 V 3.6 V 3.2 V 2.8 V 3.6 V 3.2 V 2.8 V Battery Power Conference 2010, 18,

  19. No BMS: I use a cutoff C: BMS myths Yes: a CCCV will protect a top-balanced pack: when the pack voltage is at the max, all the cell voltages will be equally at the max. However, when discharging without a BMS, the voltage of the least capacity cell will drop too far and be damaged. Battery Power Conference 2010, 19,

  20. No BMS: I use a cutoff C: BMS myths Bottom balancing won't help Fully discharged, Bottom balanced Charged. 1 has low capacity Charged. All same capacity 12.0 Vtot 14.4 Vtot = Charger CV 14.4 Vtot = Charger CV 3.0 V 3.3 V 3.6 V 3.0 V 4.5 V 3.6 V 3.0 V 3.3 V 3.6 V 3.0 V 3.3 V 3.6 V Battery Power Conference 2010, 20,

  21. No BMS: I use a cutoff C: BMS myths Yes: a LV cutoff will protect a bottom-balanced pack: when the pack voltage is low, all the cell voltages will be equally low. However, when charging without a BMS, the voltage of the least capacity cell will go too high. And that's a fire danger! Battery Power Conference 2010, 21,

  22. No BMS: I mind the SOC C: BMS myths Myth #C3: "I'll won't usethe entire SOC range,so I don't need a BMS" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 22,

  23. Nice and easy: no BMS C: BMS myths The assumptions are that: 1) The pack SOC is known 2) All the cells are at that same SOC Not so. Without a BMS, the pack SOC is not known (and even a BMS doesn't always know the SOC)‏ Battery Power Conference 2010, 23,

  24. More cells: no BMS C: BMS myths Myth #C4: "Extra cellsare cheaperthan a BMS" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 24,

  25. More cells: no BMS C: BMS myths The assumption is that a pack without a BMS will simply slowly degrade. So, instead of buying a $ 1000 BMS, I'll buy 10 extra cells. Not so. A SINGLE overcharge or over-discharge event can kill a cell. And it will keep on happening after you replace that cell. Battery Power Conference 2010, 25,

  26. D: Balancing myths D: balancing myths Group D: Myths about cell balancing - Balance purpose myths - Balance point myths Battery Power Conference 2010, 26,

  27. Balancing purpose D: balancing myths D1: "Balancing protects a battery" D2: "Balancing compensates for variations in cell capacity" FALSE FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 27,

  28. Balancing purpose D: balancing myths The point of balancing is to maximize battery capacity. Balancing brings all the cells to the same SOC at ONE point. The SOC is balanced. Battery Power Conference 2010, 28,

  29. Bottom balancing D: balancing myths Myth D4: "Bottom balancing protects the cells" MIX Battery Power Conference 2010, 29,

  30. Bottom balancing D: balancing myths No BMS & limited charge: bottom balancemay work Battery Power Conference 2010, 30,

  31. Bottom balancing D: balancing myths Otherwise, only top balancemakes sense Battery Power Conference 2010, 31,

  32. Thank you "Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs" Davide Andrea book.LiIonBMS.com elithion.com