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Factors contributing to variability in p CO 2 and omega in the coastal Gulf of Maine. J. Salisbury, D. Vandemark, C. Hunt, C. Sabine, S. Musielewicz and others. Terms for discussion: p CO 2 and Ω. p CO 2 – partial pressure of carbon dioxide (μatm) = CO 2 concentration / solubility ( k)
Factors contributing to variability in pCO2 and omega in the coastal Gulf of Maine.
J. Salisbury, D. Vandemark, C. Hunt, C. Sabine, S. Musielewicz and others
pCO2 – partial pressure of carbon dioxide (μatm)
= CO2 concentration / solubility (k)
Omega (W) – Saturation index of the mineral aragonite
In terms of Ocean Acidification, the Gulf of Maine is an interesting place.
Big salinity range
Freshwater endmember qualities
Big temperature range
During the growing season
Coastal GOM highly productive and…..
both the surface and deep waters interact with the atmosphere over short time scales
From Bozac et al., 2006 (North Sea Example)
Data shown is primarily from the CO2 buoy,
with supporting pCO2 and bottle data from cruise stations (red)
Preliminary analyses on raw data
Mauna Loa was +2.2 ppm y-1 during this time
Note that omega and xCO2 are both positive!
SST +0.2°C y-1
Analysis of daily-seasonal pCO2 variability in the context of a time resolving 1-d model
Account for daily change in pCO2 within the mixed layer caused by the processes below: (units, change in pCO2 d-1)
δpCO2Observed = δpCO2SOL + δpCO2AS + δpCO2H + δpCO2V + δpCO2NCP*
Change attributable to air sea flux of CO2 out/in of mixed layer:
f(wind, delta CO2, MLD)
Change induced by changes in solubility, f(temp, salinity)
Net change from horizontal mixing:
f(pCO2 gradient *time)
Net change from vertical mixing:
Biology: the residual of (observed – sum of modeled terms)
Similar to 1d models used by Shadwick et al, 2011 and Gruber et al, 1999
Air-sea flux > 4 matm d-1
changes in solubility > 3 matm d-1
Vertical processes > 4matm d-1
horizontal processes > 5matm d-1
Net biological processes> 5matm d-1
often > 20 matm d-1
individual components >10matm d-1
All components subject to future change
- net warming
- wind variability
Finally, use daily averaged dpCO2 output to explore the components of seasonal variability
Changes in solubility, a-s flux, mixing, NCP, freshwater flux all significant sources of pCO2 and omega variability!!
Results indicate a system that works on an annual frequency, but changes at daily – monthly time step.
Have not yet characterized the natural variability of the carbonate system in the Gulf of Maine!!!
Short term events important (storms, floods, NCP)
Effect of circulation and freshwater sourcing.
Apparent NCP in early summer?
Coastal Land Ocean Interactions
Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures.
Deliverable: a comprehensive report to NASA outlining the major scientific questions, and developing the initial study design and implementation concept for this new campaign
Focus on coastal ocean processes
A needed linkage between field campaigns focusing on the Arctic open ocean environment (e.g. ICESCAPE), and field activities focusing on Arctic river processes, chemistry and fluxes (e.g. ABoVE)
Overarching objective: better understand the impact of climate change on land-ocean interactions in the Arctic Ocean, and examine the effect of these changes on river-dominated coastal ocean biology, biogeochemistry, biodiversity.