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Mercury Puzzle Hg(0), Hg(II), Hg p. Alvaro Linero, P.E. Administrator, Special Projects Bureau of Air Regulation. Emissions and Processes. DEP Contract to Test some Facilities Three Coal- Fueled Power Plants Two Cement Kilns, plus a Compliance Test Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Compliance Tests

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Mercury Puzzle

Hg(0), Hg(II), Hgp

Alvaro Linero, P.E.Administrator, Special ProjectsBureau of Air Regulation

emissions and processes
Emissions and Processes

DEP Contract to Test some Facilities

Three Coal- Fueled Power Plants

Two Cement Kilns, plus a Compliance Test

Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Compliance Tests

Miscellaneous Industries

Hg-CEMS (Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems)

some nomenclature proportion
Some Nomenclature, Proportion

Micrograms Hg per dry standard cubic meter

Pounds Mercury per Year (lb Hg/yr)

LittleSubstantiala LotPotent

0.1 1 10 100 µg Hg/dscm

1 10 100 1000 lb Hg/year

more nomenclature
More Nomenclature

Kilowatt-hour (KWH)

1,000 KWH = Megawatt-hour (MWH)

Million (or 106) MWH = Terawatt-hour (TWH)

1 x 10-6 lb/MWH = 1 lb Hg/TWH = 0.1 lb/TBtu

ppb = parts per billion

lb Hg/million tons of clinker = lb Hg/MT clinker

slide5

25% Removal

Hgp

Old 360 MW Coal-fueled Unit High NOX

Flue Gas

Higher NOxLower CO

Cold Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)

150 lb Hg/yr

Hg(0) = Elemental (gas)

Hg(II) = Reactive (salts like HgCl2)

Hgp = Particle Bound

75%

Coal & XS Air200 lb Hg/yr

Eastern Coal

Hg0

>2500 °F

25%

50 lb Hg/yr

Fly Ash to Concrete, Cement Kiln Storage, Waste

I don’t actually have data for this case

slide6

45% Removal

Hgp

360 MW Coal-fueled Unit Tuned for Low NOX

Flue Gas C

Cold Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)

110 lb Hg/yr

Flue gas carbon (C) can behave much like activated C

Overfire Air

55%

Coal & Air200 lb Hg/yr

Hg0

Low NOxBurners (LNB)

>2500 °F

72 lb/TWH

90 ppb Hg

10.5% Ash

Eastern Coal

45%

90 lb Hg/yr

40 lb/TWH4.9 µg/dscm64% Hg(II)

Carbon and Hg-Enriched Fly Ash to Concrete, Cement Kiln, Storage, Waste 385 ppb

Vacated EPA Hg limit for new units was 21 lb/TWH

wet flue gas desulfurization fgd for so 2
Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) for SO2

Limestone or Lime Slurry

FGD

Flue Gas C

ESP

40 lb Hg/yr

OFA

Soluble Hg salts absorbed or reacted in FGD Scrubber

Coal & Air200 lb Hg/yr

20%

Hg0

LNB

>2500 °F

45% Removal

Hgp

Hg(II)

45%

90 lb Hg/yr

16 lb/TWH2 µg/dscm 85% Hg(0)

35%

70 lb Hg/yrSludge, Gypsum

Hg Salts

Carbon and Hg-Enriched Fly Ash to Concrete, Cement Kiln, Storage, Waste 385 ppb

selective catalytic reduction scr for no x
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for NOX

Limestone or Lime Slurry

FGD

ESP

Overfire Air

10 lb Hg/yr

Coal & Air

200 lb Hg/yr

Elemental Hg (0) oxidized to Hg (II) by catalyst

Hg0

LNB

SCR

>2500 °F

Flue Gas C

45% Removal

Hgp

Hg(II)

Ammonia (NH3)

45%

50%

3.2 lb/TWH0.5 µg/dscm 69% Hg(0)

90 lb Hg/yr

100 lb Hg/yrSludge, Gypsum

Hg Salts

NH3, Carbon, Hg-Enriched Fly Ash Concrete, Cement Kiln, Waste or

Fly Ash Remediation

florida cement industry
Florida Cement Industry

10,000,000 tons per year clinker

Ten cement kilns

Demand is down

Five in operation (slack demand)

Two are temporarily down

Three new startups (also slack)

Suwannee American

Vulcan

American

CEMEX N. Brooksville

CEMEX S. Brooksville

Titan America

CEMEX Miami

1 mt clinker cement kiln raw mill on

Raw Mill Off, Little Hg In

0.8 µg/dscm92% of time3 lb/yrHg(0)New Kiln Limit41 µg/dscm

400 µg/dscm8% of time117 lb/yrHg(II)New Kiln Limit41 µg/dscm

1 MT Clinker Cement Kiln, Raw Mill On

Scrubber ?

Filter

LEGEND

Gas

Solid

Preheater Exhaust

Filter Dust

To Cement Mill

Separators

Preheater Feed

1 MT/yr of Clinker

Fuel Hg

Fuel Hg

Meal & Hg Stored

Fuel Hg

Fuel Hg

RAW

MEAL

SILO

(Hg)

Meal & Hg Removed

Raw Meal, Hg Inventory Falls

Raw Meal, HgInventory Increase

Clinker

Raw Mill

Raw Materials Hg

120 lb Hg/yr in

Limestone, Sand, Fly Ash, Mill Scale

600 tons per day tpd wte process and controls
600 tons per day (TPD) WTE Process and Controls

2 - 20 µg/dscm

4 to 40 lb/yr

All have spray dryer/absorbers and fabric filter baghouses

600 TPDMunicipal Waste

February 10, 2009 | 11

activated carbon injection aci
Activated Carbon Injection (ACI)

< 5 µg/dscm

< 10 lb/yr

ACI means greater certaintyof Continuous Control

Fabric Filter

Bottom Ash

Fly Ash Containing Reacted Lime, Spent Carbon, Hg

slide14

12,000

But are Underlying Tests Truly Representative?

Highly Variable Inputs make Snapshot In-stack Test Unreliable Estimators of Maximum Emissions.

February 10, 2009 | 14

hg cems
Hg-CEMS

WTE Tests were Short-Term In-Stack Tests

Sorbent Traps and Speciation at Cement, Power

Hg-CEMS are in Place at JEA Northside

Soon American Cement, Hillsborough WTE Unit 4

Diagnostic Hg-CEMS at CEMEX Brooksville South

Used for Years at WTE and Cement in Germany

Incorporate Industry/Instrument-Specific Manuals

next steps
Next Steps

Reports for One Power Plant and Cement Kiln

EPA Informational Collection Requests (ICR)

Industrial Boilers, Coal Power, Fertilizer

Look at Secondary Steel

Examine Reliability of New Hg-CEMS

Comments to EPA on Hg Rulemaking