The Industrial Revolution. 1700 - 1850. 1804 - Trevithick - steam locomotive. 1769 - Watt - steam engine. 1721 - Tull - seed drill. 1785 - Cartwright - power loom. 1764 -Hargreaves - spinning jenny. 1769 -Arkwright -water frame. 1793 - Whitney - cotton gin. 1733 -Kay - flying shuttle.
1700 - 1850
1769 - Watt - steam engine
1721 - Tull - seed drill
1785 - Cartwright - power loom
1764 -Hargreaves - spinning jenny
1769 -Arkwright -water frame
1793 - Whitney - cotton gin
1733 -Kay - flying shuttle
1779 - Crompton - spinning mule
1700 – Agricultural revolution begins before Industrial Revolution
The wealthy buy much of the land
Landowners rent fields to tenant farmers
Tenant farmers – one who farms another's land and pays rent, usually in a share of the crops.
Landowners began fencing or hedging their land. This process is called enclosure.
Landowners free to experiment.
Scientific farmers began to use crop rotation. This is a system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.
This practice began in the middle ages but was perfected by gentleman farmer Viscount Charles Townshend.
Raising livestock was also improved.
Only the best animals were allowed to breed.
Better livestock and rising crop production meant more food.
During the 1700’s the population of Europe increased rapidly.
The reasons for the growth were improved health and increased
The growth in population increased the need for food.
However, this growth supplied the extra workers needed in the factories.
Great Britain had all of the factors needed to be a successful industrialized nation.
Abundant natural resources
Favorable climate for new ideas
Effective banking system
Industrialized countries needed 3 important natural resources:
Water and coal supplied the energy for the machines.
Iron ore was needed to build machines, tools, and buildings.
Britain is an island nation.
She had many fine harbors and 6,000 merchant ships.
These ships sailed to every part of the globe.
Overseas trade gave Britain access to raw materials and markets.
The British were interested in science and technology.
They founded the Royal Society.
Royal Society – world famous “club” for exchanging ideas and inventions.
The wealthy British invested in new inventions.
Great Britain had the most highly developed banking system in Europe.
The service of making loans was very important during this time period.
Loaning money at a reasonable interest rate encouraged people to invest in new inventions.
The British lived in a century of peace.
Freedom from the expense of war allowed them to concentrate their money on new technology.
Their government favored economic growth.
It passed laws supporting and encouraging new investments.