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Intergroup Behavior, Negotiation, and team building

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  1. Chapter 9 Intergroup Behavior, Negotiation, and team building

  2. To perform effectively, interdependent individuals and groups must establish working relationship across organizational boundaries, between individual, and among groups.

  3. Introduction • Interdependence may foster either cooperation and conflict. • Conflict is likely to occur at this point because each function has its own goals. • Interpersonal conflict is a fundamental aspect of organizational life

  4. A Realistic View of Intergroup Conflict • Conflict is inevitable in organizations • Critical issues appear to be not conflict itself but rather how it’s managed • Conflict can be defined: 1. Functional conflict 2. Dysfunctional conflict

  5. Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict • Functional conflict is a confrontation between groups that enhances and benefits the organization’s performance • Dysfunctional conflict is any confrontation or interaction between groups that harms the organization or hinders the achievement of organizational goals

  6. Conflict and organizational performance • Impact on organizational performance depend on the nature of conflict and how it is managed • Too low; performance can suffer, innovation and change are difficult • Too high; resulting chaos

  7. Hypothetical situations Situation 2 High Low Level of inter-group conflict Situation 3 Situation 1

  8. Relationship Between Intergroup Conflict and Organizational Performance Level of Intergroup Conflict Level of Organizational Performance Probable Impact on Organization Organization Characterized By Low or none Slow adaptation to environment Few changes Little stimulation of ideas Apathy Stagnation Low Situation I Dysfunctional Optimal Functional High Situation II Positive movement toward goals Innovation and change Search for problem solutions Creativity and quick adaptation to environmental changes Disruption Interference with activities Coordination difficulties Chaos High Dysfunctional Low Situation III

  9. Stages of Conflict Perceived Conflict Intergroup conflicts develop over a period of time Felt Conflict Manifest Conflict

  10. What Causes Intergroup Conflict? • Work Interdependence • Pooled interdependence • Sequential interdependence • Reciprocal interdependence • Goal Differences • Mutually exclusive goals • Perceptual Differences • Status incongruency • Inaccurate perceptions

  11. Types of Interdependence Group A POOLED Goals Group B Group A Group B SEQUENTIAL Goals Group B Group A RECIPROCAL Goals Goals

  12. Pooled interdependence Tidak ada interaksi antar kelompok kecuali melalui organisasi. Potensi konflik rendah; manajemen bisa menggunakan SOP untuk koordinasi (Misal; staff pada kantor penjualan IBM dalam satu region tidak ada interaksi dengan peers di region lain • Sequential interdependence Output suatu group harus menyelesaikan tugas sebelum group menyelesaikan tugas (mis: assembly) • Reciprocal interdependence Output suatu group menjadi input yang lain (Misal: air traffic control, pilot, dan ground operation)

  13. Problems Related to Goal Differences • Groups with mutually exclusive goals can find themselves in conflict • Allocating limited resources between groups increases mutual dependencies and differences in goals are more apparent • Different time horizons needed by groups to achieve their goals can be a source of conflict

  14. Minimizing Perceptual Bases for Conflict • Communicate effectively! • Help develop a group’s social sensitivity. • Emphasize behavioral flexibility. • Communicate effectively!

  15. Changes Within Groups Increased group cohesiveness Emphasis on loyalty Rise in autocratic leadership Focus on activity Changes Between Groups Distorted perceptions Negative stereotyping Decreased communication The Consequences of Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflict

  16. Managing Intergroup Conflict Through Resolution Accommodating Dominating Compromising Avoiding Problem Solving

  17. Conflict-Resolution Grid Accommodating or Smoothing Problem Solving or Collaboration Allowing other group to win Working together to solve problems HIGH Compromising Finding acceptable solution so everyone feels good EXTERNAL FOCUS Avoiding Dominating LOW Ignoring or steering clear of other group Working to dominate and control LOW HIGH INTERNAL FOCUS

  18. When to Use the Different Conflict-Resolution Approaches (1 of 3) • Dominating approach – use on important issues • where you are certain you are right, and • where the benefit of a resolution outweighs the drawback of possible negative feelings by the dominated group • Accommodating approach – use in disputes that are of far greater importance to the other group than they are to your group

  19. When to Use the Different Conflict-Resolution Approaches (2 of 3) • Problem-solving approach – use when both groups are willing to invest time and effort to reach a resolution that maximizes everyone’s outcome • Avoiding approach – use primarily as a temporary expedient to buy more time

  20. When to Use the Different Conflict-Resolution Approaches (3 of 3) • Compromising approach – use as a middle ground • Good backup approach when other approaches fail to resolve the issue

  21. Negotiations (1 of 2) • Negotiations – a process in which two or more parties attempt to reach acceptable agreement in a situation characterized by some level of disagreement

  22. Variables That Affect Negotiations • There is no one best way to negotiate • The selection of specific negotiation strategies and tactics depends on: 1. The nature of the issues being negotiated 2. The environment in which the negotiations take place 3. The nature of the outcomes desired from the negotiations

  23. Four personalities will face at negotiation table: • The power seeker (task and results-oriented, seeking challenges and opportunities, and potentially confrontational) • The persuader (outgoing, socially oriented, ambitious) • The reliable performer (solid, dependable, comfortable in supportive surroundings, and resistant to sudden change)

  24. Continue…. • The limited performer (lack in self-confidence, in need of a sheltered environment, non decisive, and introvert)

  25. Using Third-Party Negotiations 2. Arbitration 1. Mediation 4. Consultation 3. Conciliation