HI136 The History of Germany Lecture 15. Reconstruction: West Germany. The Basic Law. Based on 4 key principles: The rule of law Democratic participation for all Federalism Social welfare
SPD – (Social Democratic Party) Continuity from 1875.
Christlich Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union, CDU) – Formed in June 1945.
Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, FDP) - Founded in Dec. 1948
Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard and
President TheodorHeuss, 1949
Source: T. Kirk, Cassell’s Dictionary of Modern German History (2002)
1917-33: Served as mayor of Cologne.
1921-33: Chairman of the Prussian Council of State.
1934: Imprisoned by the Nazis.
1948-49: Chairman of the Parliamentary Council.
1949-63: Chancellor of the FRG
Economics Minister (1949-63)
Hans Globke (1898-1973)
Aims of the Western Powers:
Factors which helped rehabilitation:
1951: Signing (in Paris) of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
1952: Signing (in Paris) of the European Defense Community (EDC). The ‘Stalin note’ offering a united neutral Germany.
1954: Signing of the Paris Agreements. FRG/BRD is invited to join NATO permitting West German rearmament and Italy and the FRG/BRD accede to the Western European Union (WEU).
1955: Full sovereignty returned to the Federal Republic.
1957: The Treaty of Rome is signed establishing the European Economic Community. The Saar returns to Germany as a Land (to be followed in 3 years by economic reintegration).
1963: French-German Friendship Treaty is signed in Paris.
Copies of Der Spiegel being confiscated from
the magazine’s offices.
1965-69: Grand Coalition.
1969 election: CDU = 46.1% of vote, SPD = 42.7%, FDP = 5.8% - SPD-FDP Coalition formed under Willy Brandt.
1969-72: Ostpolitik = attempts to normalize relations between the two German states.
1972: Basic Treaty – German states agree to develop good relations, settle disputes without force & respect one another’s independence.
Brandt pays tribute to the uprising that lasted from April to May of 1943
1974: Brandt forced to resign in spy scandal.
1982: SPD & FDP unable to agree on a budget – vote of no-confidence brought the CDU’s Helmut Kohl to power.
1983 election: CDU won nearly 50% of the vote, the Green Party emerges as a national political party with 5.4% of the vote & 27 deputies in the Bundestag.
A move to the right in the 1980s, accompanied by efforts to cast off the stigma of Nazism & take pride in being German.
Willy Brandt (SPD)
Konrad Adenauer (CDU)
Ludwig Erhard (CDU)
Helmut Schmidt (SPD)
Helmut Kohl (CDU)
Gerhard Schröder (SPD)
Angela Merkel (CDU)