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Cowboys and cattle. L.O: To know what the cattle industry was and why it developed. To know what the cattle drive was and what equipment a cowboy needed. Why did the cattle industry start in the first place?. Civil war. Texas. Why did the cattle industry start?. Spanish imports.

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cowboys and cattle

Cowboys and cattle.

L.O: To know what the cattle industry was and why it developed.

To know what the cattle drive was and what equipment a cowboy needed.

why did the cattle industry start in the first place
Why did the cattle industry start in the first place?

Civil war

Texas

Why did the cattle industry start?

Spanishimports

the beginnings in texas
The beginnings in Texas
  • The Texas Long Horn

By 1865 it was thought there were 5 million cattle in Texas.

slide4
But…

Cattle are worthless

Unless they are sold.

so there was a need for a cattle drive
So there was a need for a cattle drive..
  • These took place in the summer.
  • Cattle would be driven from Texas at an average of 24km a day to cow towns were they would be put on sale.
fill in the gaps
Fill in the Gaps
  • Cattle was ……………. Unless it could be sold. The only way this could happen was if the cattle were……… to …………in the East. They would then feed the population in the overcrowded………..
  • There were a number of problems with the long……….. Cattle could catch Texas………… which was carried on a …….. Also because the drive was so long the cattle lost…………. And condition, meaning they would sell for less.
  • Homesteaders would also turn them back because…….
cowboys

Can you name all

Of the equipment highlighted?

Can you explain its use?

Cowboys
slide11
The life of a cowboys followed the seasons.

In winter they hung around the ranch, but there were strict rules (which were usually broken)

Or they took it in turn to work in “line camps” stopping the cattle drifting onto the open range.

In spring they went “bog riding” to haul out mired cows and went on the “round up”

In summer they went on the long drive.

In lots of ways their lives were simliar to NAI’s always on the move and self sufficient.

They were entirely dependant upon the great plains.

They developed their own way of communicating in long range signals.

slide15
Real cowboys had to endure lots of hardships:

Freezing winter cold in the line camps

Danger of being trampled

Danger of drowning

Extreme weathers, rain, burning sun, hail.

Having to stay awake all night on duty.

Having to ride “drag” on the ride (all of the dust)

Attacks from Native American Indians.

Attacks from rustlers.

the development of cow towns
The Development of Cow towns.

Wordwatch: cow town:

The first one of these was developed by Joseph McCoy in Abiliene in 1867. Cowboys would bring their cattle here for sale to the East.

slide17
Abilene:

Joseph McCoy brought land.

Built stocks to house cattle waiting to be railed to Chicago.

He shipped cattle East to be sold and slaughtered.

A head of cattle worth $5 in Texas could be sold for 10 x that in Abilene.

As the railroad spread west mrecowtowns grew, Dodge City, Newton for example.

charles goodnight
Charles Goodnight

When he came back from the CIVIL war he

Knew that his cattle would not be worth much by

The time he had driven then East. So he sold

Them to the ARMY! That were in a nearby

FORT.

Who else could he sell cattle to, because they

Could not get out and HUNT? Who else needed

Food?

He ended up making lots of

Money with his business partner

OLIVER LOVING!

explain the impact that joseph mccoy had on the cattle industry 9
Explain the impact that Joseph McCoy had on the cattle industry. (9)

Key words to get into your answer:

Abilene

Chicago

Cattle dealer

Stock pens

profit

past paper question
Past Paper question.

Remember the secret formula to get 9 out of 9 on this type of question!

john illiff the first rancher
John Illiff: The first rancher!

He was a failed miner and he had decided that selling cattle was a better way to make a living.

It was him who found out that cattle could survive on the Plains over winter.

He started buying up sick and footsore cattle and soon had a herd of 35,000 cattle.

This was the start of the RANCH! At this point this was STILL THE OPEN RANGE

why had unfenced ranching been so successful
Why had unfenced ranching been so successful?

Write your ideas on a post it note and come and stick it on the board.

did you come up with
Did you come up with?....

The Plains Indians were now confined to reservations.

The buffalo that had previously grazed the grass had been slaughtered.

It was discovered the cold winter killed the Texas Fever tick.

The new railroads were able to take the cattle to the markets in the more populated East quickly. There were huge slaughter houses in cities like Chicago.

slide29

Plains Family Fortunes!

I asked (sort of) 100 Cattlemen and 100 Cowboys what the main reason for the clashes between them were?

plains family fortunes
Plains Family Fortunes!

Damage to crops

Water

Land

Cattle Rustling (stealing)

Bringing Disease

the importance of the johnson county war
the importance of the Johnson County War
  • Johnson County – settled by ranchers in 1870s
  • Ranchers here very powerful – Cattle Barons
  • Homesteaders moving into county caused predictable problems.
  • Cattle Barons lost cattle to rustling and blamed Homesteaders.
  • 1889 – Land owned by James Averill and Ella Watson wanted by ranchers – arguments ensue.
  • 1892 – Barons decide to solve problems for good – Texas gunfighters recruited led by Maj. Frank Walcott and 70 names put on a ‘death list’.
slide33

Divide your page into 2, as shown below. Insert the reasons that the Cattlemen and the Homesteaders hated each other. Use page 68 and 69 and remember to include examples.

Well suh, I really hate these Homesteaders because………….

Gee, I hate these dog-gone Cattlemen. Here’s why…………

understand the importance of the johnson county war p 69 70
Understand the importance of the Johnson County War p.69-70
  • Plan – The Wyoming Stock Growers Association hired about 50 gunmen, called the Regulators, to shoot down the troublemakers. In response, the small ranch owners established the rival Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association.
  • The ‘Regulators’ Cut telegraph wires to stop messages.
  • Stopped on the way to attack the KC Ranch – here they took all day to defeat Nate Champion and Nick Ray (the only two people to die)
  • While fighting at KC they were spotted – when they arrived in Buffalo the residents were ready and the ‘Regulators’ retreated and were rescued by the cavalry.
  • Cattle Barons were never convicted but lost power and Homesteaders and Ranchers live much more peacefully.
tasks
Tasks

The Johnson County War

  • 1.  What happened to Ella Watson and James Averill and why?
  • 2.  In your exam you will need to provide as much information as you can in as little time as possible. To prepare for this you must tell the story of the events of 1892 in as much detail as possible but you must use exactly 50 words.
  • 3. Why was the Johnson County War a turning point in the relations between Cattlemen and Homesteaders?
slide36

Tensions and Turning Points

Can you put the correct events in the correct stars to chart the relationship between Cattlemen and Homesteaders?

Tension

10

9

8

7

Can anyone add any more events?

6

5

4

3

2

1

Year

1862

1866

1870

1874

1886

1892

1900

the reasons for tension between cattlemen and homesteaders
the reasons for tension between Cattlemen and Homesteaders
  • From 1866 when cattlemen began to ranch on the plains tension between the cattlemen and Homesteaders grew. In Johnson County the cattlemen had been there first and were richer than the homesteaders.
  • Cattle ranchers wanted the plains to be ‘open’ to allow cattle to graze and access water freely.
  • The Homesteaders were worried about the ‘Texas fever’ of the cattle infecting their animals and the cattle trampling their crops so they wanted to fence off their land. This annoyed the ranchers, especially if the fence was around a waterhole.
tensions rise
Tensions Rise
  • 1874 – Barbed wire meant land could be closed off far easier.
  • Small ranches fought back against this by fence cutting.
  • As years progressed more and more people moving onto the plains – arguments over land increasing and tensions rise.
  • Problems in ranching didn’t help tension –1883/1886-7