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# Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement Learning. 16 January 2009 RG Knowledge Based Systems Hans Kleine Büning. Outline. Motivation Applications Markov Decision Processes Q-learning Examples. How to program a robot to ride a bicycle?. Reinforcement Learning: The Idea. Download Presentation ## Reinforcement Learning

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1. Reinforcement Learning 16 January 2009 RG Knowledge Based Systems Hans Kleine Büning

2. Outline • Motivation • Applications • Markov Decision Processes • Q-learning • Examples

3. How to program a robot to ride a bicycle?

4. Reinforcement Learning: The Idea • A way of programming agents by reward and punishment without specifying how the task is to be achieved

5. Environment state €€€ €€€ action Learning to Ride a Bicycle

6. States: Angle of handle bars Angular velocity of handle bars Angle of bicycle to vertical Angular velocity of bicycle to vertical Acceleration of angle of bicycle to vertical Learning to Ride a Bicycle

7. Environment state €€€ €€€ action Learning to Ride a Bicycle

8. Actions: Torque to be applied to the handle bars Displacement of the center of mass from the bicycle’s plan (in cm) Learning to Ride a Bicycle

9. Environment state €€€ €€€ action Learning to Ride a Bicycle

10. Angle of bicycle to vertical is greater than 12° no yes Reward = -1 Reward = 0

11. Learning To Ride a Bicycle Reinforcement Learning

12. Reinforcement Learning: Applications • Board Games • TD-Gammon program, based on reinforcement learning, has become a world-class backgammon player • Mobile Robot Controlling • Learning to Drive a Bicycle • Navigation • Pole-balancing • Acrobot • Sequential Process Controlling • Elevator Dispatching

13. Key Features of Reinforcement Learning • Learner is not told which actions to take • Trial and error search • Possibility of delayed reward: • Sacrifice of short-term gains for greater long-term gains • Explore/Exploit trade-off • Considers the whole problem of a goal-directed agent interacting with an uncertain environment

14. The Agent-Environment Interaction • Agent and environment interact at discrete time steps: t = 0,1, 2, … • Agent observes state at step t : st2 S • produces action at step t: at2A • gets resulting reward : rt +12 ℜ • and resulting next state: st +12 S

15. The Agent’s Goal: • Coarsely, the agent’s goal is to get as much reward as it can over the long run Policy  is • a mapping from states to action (s) = a • Reinforcement learning methods specify how the agent changes its policy as a result of experience experience

16. Deterministic Markov Decision Process

17. Example

18. Example: Corresponding MDP

19. Example: Corresponding MDP

20. Example: Corresponding MDP

21. Example: Policy

22. Value of Policy and Rewards

23. Value of Policy and Agent’s Task

24. Nondeterministic Markov Decision Process P = 0.8 P = 0.1 P = 0.1

25. Nondeterministic Markov Decision Process

26. Nondeterministic Markov Decision Process

27. Example with South-Easten Wind

28. Example with South-Easten Wind

29. Methods Model (reward function and transition probabilities) is known Model (reward function or transition probabilities) is unknown discrete states continuous states discrete states continuous states Dynamic Programming Value Function Approximation + Dynamic Programming Reinforcement Learning, Monte Carlo Methods Valuation Function Approximation + Reinforcement Learning

30. Q-learning Algorithm

31. Q-learning Algorithm

32. Example

33. Example: Q-table Initialization

34. Example: Episode 1

35. Example: Episode 1

36. Example: Episode 1

37. Example: Episode 1

38. Example: Episode 1

39. Example: Q-table

40. Example: Episode 1

41. Episode 1

42. Example: Q-table

43. Example: Episode 2

44. Example: Episode 2

45. Example: Episode 2

46. Example: Q-table after Convergence

47. Example: Value Function after Convergence

48. Example: Optimal Policy

49. Example: Optimal Policy

50. Q-learning

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