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HIPOTHALAMUS & HIPOFISIS. DEVELOPMENT OF PITUITARY (HYPOPHYSIS). ADENOHYPOPHYSIS RATHKE’S POUCH (P. DISTALIS (THE ROOF OF THE MOUTH) P. TUBERALIS P. INTERMEDIA) HYPOPHYSIS (PITUITARY) NEUROHYPOPHYSIS DIVERTICULUM OF (including: DEVELOPING BRAIN

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development of pituitary hypophysis
DEVELOPMENT OF PITUITARY (HYPOPHYSIS)

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS RATHKE’S POUCH

(P. DISTALIS (THE ROOF OF THE MOUTH)

P. TUBERALIS

P. INTERMEDIA)

HYPOPHYSIS

(PITUITARY)

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS DIVERTICULUM OF

(including: DEVELOPING BRAIN

NEURAL STALK

P. NERVOSA)

(Fig. 18.18)

the hypothalamus
THE HYPOTHALAMUS
  • IN THE FLOOR AND INFERIOR PARTS OF THE WALLS OF THIRD VENTRICLE
  • CONTAINS NEUROSECRETORY CELLS (ENDOCRINE FUNCTION): CLUSTERS OF NEUROSECRETORY CELLS/NUCLEI

PRODUCE HORMONES

(RF/IF, oxytocine, ADH/vasopressin)

(RF: releasing factor; IF: inhibiting factor; ADH: antidiuretic hormone)

(Fig. 18.5 & 18.6)

hypothalamus hypophysis target gland
HYPOTHALAMUS - HYPOPHYSIS- TARGET GLAND

HYPOTHALAMUS

RF/IF OXYTOCINE/ADH

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS NEUROHYPOPHYSIS

TROPHIC

HORMONES (OXYT./ADH)

(TROPHINS)

TARGET GLANDS

HORMONES

CELLS/TISSUES

CELLS/TISSUES

neurohypophysis
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS

SUPRAOPTIC ADH

NUCLEUS (+ OXYTOCIN)

(SON)

NEURO

SECRETORY

CELLS

(hypothalamus)

PARAVENTRICULAR OXYTOCIN

NUCLEUS (PVN) (+ADH)

(ADH: antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin)

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS

neurosecretion
NEUROSECRETION

NEUROSECRETORY CELL

(Activate)

Substances in the blood

CLUSTERS OF (glucose, peripheral hormones)

NEUROSECRETORY CELLS

IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

  • ARCUATE NUCLEUS (ARC) (Transported)

RF/IF ADENOHYPOPHYSIS

TROPHIC HORMONES Stored (in vesicles)

  • SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS (SON)

ADH (+OXYTOCIN) Released

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS (into extracellular space)

  • PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS (PVN) Capillaries (fenestrated, plexus)

OXYTOCIN (+ ADH) (veins)

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS Blood

TARGET CELLS

HORMONE SYNTHESIZED

pvn son oxytocin
PVN/SON OXYTOCIN

PVN/SONNERVE (Distention of the uterus during

labour/delivery

OX/ADH Suckling the nipple by the baby)

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS

PREGNANT UTERUS ONSET OF LABOUR

BREAST (MAMMILLARY GLAND) MILK LETDOWN

(smooth muscle/myoepithelium)

O

X

Y

T

O

C

I

N

(octapeptide)

slide12

STRENOUS WORK INCREASED REABSORPTION OF WATER

HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES TARGET CELLS

VASOPRESSIN (ADH) SON/PVN

(octapeptide) (OSMORECEPTOR)

COLLECTING TUBULES INCREASED OSMOTIC PRESSURE

(kidney) OF THE BLOOD (Haemoconcentration)

INCREASED REABSORPTION

OF WATER

CONCENTRATED URINE

(in attempt to retain water)

RF/IF

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS Primary plexus

(cords/clumps of endocrine cells) Hypothalamohypophyseal

portal system

Trophic hormone

(Trophin

TARGET GLAND TARGET CELLS/TISSUES

STRENOUS WORK

(in a hot environment)

HYPOTHALAMUS (ARC)

(RF/IF)

HORMONE

aldosteron regulation of blood pressure
ALDOSTERON & REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE
  • THE NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM THAT REGULATES THE SECRETION OF ALDOSTERON AND CONTROLS BLOOD PRESSURE

BLOOD VOL. INCREASES

TO NORMAL

START

BLOOD VOL. DECREASES

BLOODPRESS. INCREASES

TO NORMAL

BLOOD PRESSURE DECREASES

KIDNEYRELEASES RENIN

INTO BLOODSTREAM

SODIUM & WATER REABSORPTION

INCREASE BLOOD VOL. IN

ASSOCIATION WITH INCREASED INGESTION

OF SALT & WATER

RENIN CONVERTS ANGIOTENSINOGEN

INTO ANGIOTENSIN I (AI)

KIDNEY:

INCREASE REABSORPTION OF WATER

(WATER RETENTION)

AI PASSES THROUGH LUNGS,

IS CONVERTED INTO AII

AII CIRCULATES IN BLOODSTREAM STIMULATES ZONA GRANULOSA

OF ADRENAL GLAND TO RELEASE ALDOSTERONE; AII ALSO ACTS AS VASOCONSTRICTOR

slide15

Oxytocin

GH

ADH

TSH

Prolactin

Gonadotropins:

LH, FSH

ACTH

adenohypophysis
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS

TROPHIC HORMONES HORMONES ACTING DIRECTLY

(TROPHINS) ON PERIPHERAL TISSUES

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Growth Hormone (GH)/Somatostrophin)

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Prolactin (Luteotrophic Hormone/LTH)

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

PARS INTERMEDIA Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Pigment formation

hypothalamus
HYPOTHALAMUS
  • Menggabungkan fungsi-fungsi yang memelihara homeostasis kimia dan suhu
  • Berfungsi bersama dengan sistem limbik
  • Mengendalikan keluarnya hormon-hormon dari pituitari anterior dan posterior
hypothalamus1
HYPOTHALAMUS

Mensintesis dan melepaskan hormon-hormon hypophysiotropic :

  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
  • Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
  • Prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)
  • Prolactin-inhibitn hormone (PIH)
hypothalamus2
HYPOTHALAMUS
  • Mensintesis hormon-hormon hypophysiotropic dalam badan sel neuron yang berlokasi dalam hypothalamus
  • Membawa hormon turun melalui akson dan tersimpan dalam akhir syaraf (nerve endings)
  • Mensekresi hormon-hormon dalam nadi/denyutan (pulses)
hypothalamus mensekresi hormon hypophysiotropic
HYPOTHALAMUS: Mensekresi Hormon Hypophysiotropic
  • Dipengaruhi oleh emosi
  • Dapat dipengaruhi oleh status metabolik setiap individu
  • Dihantarkan ke pituitari anterior melalui sistem portal hypothalamic-hypophyseal
  • Biasa memulai tahapan/urutan 3 hormon
negative feedback controls long short loop reflexes
Negative Feedback Controls: Long & Short Loop Reflexes

Figure 7-14: Negative feedback loops in the hypothalamicanterior pituitary pathway

negative feedback controls long short loop reflexes1
Negative Feedback Controls: Long & Short Loop Reflexes

Figure 7-15: Control pathway for cortisol secretion

endocrine control three levels of integration
Endocrine Control: Three Levels of Integration

Figure 7-13: Hormones of the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary pathway

anterior pituitary
ANTERIOR PITUITARY

MENSEKRESI HORMON-HORMON TROPIC SECARA PULSATILE

anterior pituitary hormones
ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES

Growth Hormone (GH, Somatotropin): hormon utama yang bertanggung jawab terhadap pengaturan pertumbuhan tubuh, dan penting dalam metabolisme

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): menstimulasi sekresi hormon thyroid & pertumbuhan kelenjar thyroid

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): menstimulasi sekresi kortisol oleh korteks adrenal & memacu pertumbuhan korteks adrenal

anterior pituitary2
ANTERIOR PITUITARY

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH):Wanita: menstimulasi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan folikel ovarium, memacu sekresi estrogen oleh ovarium. Pria: dibutuhkan untuk produksi sperma

Luteinizing Hormone (LH):Wanita: bertanggung jawab untuk ovulasi, pembentukan corpus luteum dalam ovarium, dan pengaturan sekresi ovarium pada hormon seks wanita. Pria: menstimulasi sel dalam testes untuk mensekresi testosterone

Prolactin:Wanita: menstimulasi perkembangan payudara dan produksi susu. Pria: berperan dalam fungsi testicular

anterior pituitary3
ANTERIOR PITUITARY

Mensintesis berbagai hormon pituitari anterior pituitary oleh berbagai macam populasi sel.

Corticotropes - ACTH

Lactortropes - Prolactin

Somatotropes - GH

Thyrotropes - Thyrotropin

Gonadotropes - FSH, LH

pengaturan endokrin three levels of integration
Pengaturan Endokrin: Three Levels of Integration
  • Stimulasi Hypothalamic – dari CNS
  • Stimulasi Pituitary–dari hypothalamic trophic Hs
  • Stimulasi kelenjar Endocrine –dari pituitary trophic Hs
pathologies over or under production
Pathologies: Over or Under Production

Figure 7-19: Negative feedback by exogenous cortisol

pathologies due to receptors
Pathologies: Due to Receptors

Figure 7-20: Primary and secondary hypersecretion of cortisol

posterior pituitary
POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Terdiri atas akhiran akson dari badan sel dalam hypothalamus (supraoptic dan paraventricular)

Axons melintas dari hypothalamus menuju ke posterior pituitary melalui traktus hypothalamohypophysial

Hormon-hormon Posterior pituitary disintesis dalam badan sel dalam neuron dalam nukleus supraoptic dan paraventricular

posterior pituitary1
POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Hormon-hormon yang disintesis dalam hypothalamus ditransportasi turun sepanjang akson menuju ke akhiran pada posterior pituitary

Hormon-hormon disimpan dalam vesikel-vesikel dalam posterior pituitary sampai dengan dilepaskan ke dalam sirkulasi

Principal Hormones: Vasopressin & Oxytocin

posterior pituitary2
POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Oxytocin:

Disintesis sebagai hormon prekursor: prepro-oxyphysin

Bekerja utamanya pada payudara dan uterus

Meningkatkan kontraksi otot polos Vas Deferens

posterior pituitary3
POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Vasopressin

Osmolalitas plasma dimonitor oleh osmoreceptors dalam hipothalamus

Peningkatan osmolalitas plasma menstimulasi sekresi vasopressin

Perubahan sedikit saja di atas tekanan osmotik plasma normal ( 285 mosm/kg) menstimulasi dilepaskannya vasopressin

posterior pituitary4
POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Sekresi vasopressin juga distimulasi oleh:

1. Penurunan volume darah yang banyak

2. Penurunan tekanan darah

posterior pituitary5
POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Kerja Vasopression :

Menurunkan ekskresi air oleh ginjal (V2 receptors)

Constricts blood vessels (V1 receptors)

Meningkatkan hormon adrenocorticortropin (V1B receptors)

summary of the endocrine system
Summary of the Endocrine System

Figure 7-2-3: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Hormones

summary of the endocrine system1
Summary of the Endocrine System

Figure 7-2-2: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Hormones