cellular phones as embedded systems n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Cellular Phones as Embedded Systems PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Cellular Phones as Embedded Systems

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Cellular Phones as Embedded Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 106 Views
  • Uploaded on

Cellular Phones as Embedded Systems. EEL 6935 - Embedded Systems Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Florida. Liza Rodriguez Aurelio Morales. Outline Introduction Today’s Cellular Phone Architecture Challenges for Wireless Access Memory , OS, and Power Challenges

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Cellular Phones as Embedded Systems' - ziarre


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
cellular phones as embedded systems

Cellular Phones as Embedded Systems

EEL 6935 - Embedded Systems

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Florida

Liza Rodriguez

Aurelio Morales

slide2

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Today’sCellularPhone
  • ArchitectureChallengesforWireless Access
  • Memory, OS, and PowerChallenges
  • Conclusions
slide3

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Today’sCellularPhone
  • ArchitectureChallengesforWireless Access
  • Memory, OS, and PowerChallenges
  • Conclusions
slide4

Cellular Generations

  • Analog Cellular Technology (1G)
    • Early 1980’s
    • NMT, AMPS (FDMA)
    • Susceptible to noise and interference. No protection.
  • Digital Mobile Communication (2G, 2.5G)
    • Early 1990’s
    • GSM (TDMA), IS-95 (CDMA), IS-136 (D-AMPS, TDMA), PDC (TDMA)
    • Data services: SMS
    • Digital encryption of conversations. Enhanced privacy.
  • Wide Band Mobile Communication (3G, 3.5G)
    • Early 2000’s
    • EDGE (TDMA), CDMA 2000, UMTS (CDMA)
    • Data transfer rates >= 2 Mbit/s
    • Data & Voice convergence, Internet access.
  • Broadband Mobile Communication (4G)
    • LTE Advanced, IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)
    • Data transfer rates >= 100 Mbits/s
    • Mobile IPTV, Wireless VoIP.
slide5

Introduction (cont.)

Evolution of Radio Systems, Mobility, Data Rates

slide6

Introduction (cont.)

Digital Convergence

  • Convergence enables people to create, share and consume digital content, using interoperable devices
  • Cellular phones evolve from traditional cost-optimized handhelds to multifunctional terminals
  • Cellular phones: key platform for mobile convergence applications (web browsing, video streaming, etc.)
slide7

Agenda

  • Introduction
  • Today’sCellularPhone
  • ArchitectureChallengesforWireless Access
  • Memory, OS, and PowerChallenges
  • Conclusions
slide8

Today’s Cellular Phone

  • Extremely complex embedded system
  • Functional blocks are custom-made for mobility
  • Chips are either proprietary designs or based on available chips.
  • Miniaturization and functionality
slide18

Agenda

  • Introduction
  • Today’sCellularPhone
  • ArchitectureChallengesforWireless Access
  • Memory, OS, and PowerChallenges
  • Conclusions
slide19

Development of Cellular phones

  • Miniaturization
  • Functionality
slide21

RF challenges: Multiradio

  • Wide variety of radio systems
  • Combination of systems at reasonable cost and size
  • Interference
  • Miniaturization challenges
    • Antennas
    • Filters
slide22

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Today’sCellularPhone
  • ArchitectureChallengesforWireless Access
  • Memory, OS, and PowerChallenges
  • Conclusions
slide23

Memory Challenge

  • Total memory requirement is increasing rapidly
  • Mass Memories – interactive games, high quality video
    • Large memories are required to support data downloading and local storage
    • Supported by external memory cards: MMC or SD
  • Small Memories – processing and small applications
    • Memory chips and their interconnections consume large areas on PCBs and are accessed frequently
    • New types of NVRAM may challenge memory chips to provide smaller and more cost effective memory solutions
slide24

NVRAM – Alternatives to Flash Memory

  • Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM)
    • DRAM cell with ferroelectric dielectric in the storage capacitor
    • Advantages: low power, faster reads and writes (single word vs. entire block erase), greater number of write-erase cycles (1016 vs. 106)
    • Disadvantages: lower storage density, higher cost
  • Phase Change Memory
    • Glass cells that become crystalline
    • or amorphous by cooling
    • Advantages: faster reads and writes,
    • greater number of write-erase cycles
    • (108 vs. 106), longer hold times
    • Disadvantages: temp sensitivity,
    • no pre-programming
slide25

Application Platform

  • Mobile internet – web browsing, video calls and high bit rate streaming
  • Java ME – provides flexible user interfaces, built in network protocols, multimedia support
    • Fact: 2.1 Billion mobile phones use Java platforms
  • 3rd Party Mobile Applications – if developed in Java, are portable enough to run on almost all cell phones
slide26

Java – Hardware or Software?

  • Hardware – an additional small processor dedicated for running Java
    • Improves performance, minimizes memory requirements
    • Software becomes dependent on inflexible hardware implementation
  • Software – Java is run on
  • baseband processor
    • Virtual machine – Java commands
    • are interpreted as equivalent
    • microprocessor commands -- slow!
    • Just In Time – compiler that would
    • translate Java classes into processor
    • instructions --- fast!
slide27

Power Challenge

  • Recent evolution of communication and application functions have substantially increased power consumption
  • Constant annual growth of 10% in battery capacity has enabled battery volume shrinkage while having mAh level constant
  • However, when 3G or WLAN communication is run simultaneously with multimedia applications, power consumption must be reduced
slide29

Solutions to Power Gap

  • 10% increase in battery capacity will continue forever
  • Reduce power hungry components:
    • Antennas – Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, RF
    • Digital displays
  • Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS)
  • Reconfigurable RF components to reduce the number of ICs.
slide30

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Today’sCellularPhone
  • ArchitectureChallengesforWireless Access
  • Memory, OS, and PowerChallenges
  • Conclusions
slide31

Conclusions

  • Cellular phones have come a long way from analog communication devices to digital mobile computers.
  • Today, a cellular phone is a paradigm of an embedded system having highly optimized cost, size, efficiency and performance.
  • Challenges in RF circuits, implementation architecture, memory, and power consumption are still affecting the development and growth of mobile devices.
  • New technologies such as decentralized architectures, reconfigurable circuits, advanced memories, and low power designs will help overcome challenges.
slide32

References

  • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1332581
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone
  • http://www.portioresearch.com/resources.html
  • http://www.phonewreck.com/wiki/index.php?title=BlackBerry_Bold
  • http://www.phonewreck.com/wiki/index.php?title=Nokia_N95