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The Rise and Fall of Napoleon (Napoleonic Era) 1802-1815. From Corsican to Emperor to Exile: 1769-1821. The little Corsican Born August 15, 1769 in rebellion vs. France Studies Caesar – entered military French Revolution: provides opportunities 1793 – Noticed by Rev. Gov’t. at Toulon

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the rise and fall of napoleon napoleonic era 1802 1815

The Rise and Fall of Napoleon(Napoleonic Era)1802-1815

From Corsican to Emperor to Exile: 1769-1821

slide2
The little Corsican
    • Born August 15, 1769 in rebellion vs. France
    • Studies Caesar – entered military
  • French Revolution: provides opportunities
    • 1793 – Noticed by Rev. Gov’t. at Toulon
    • 1794 – Robespierre’s fall & others = Napoleon’s rise
    • Oct 1795 mob of 80,000 attack NC
      • Napoleon called upon – fires point blank w/cannons
      • Uncounted deaths – promotion to major general
    • March 1796 General-in-Chief of army in Italy
the consulate 1799 1804
The Consulate, 1799-1804
  • Coup d’etat
  • Constitution created a three consul system
    • Napoleon chosen as “First Consul”
    • The two subordinate consuls had little authority (Talleyrand: Foreign minister)
  • In 1802, Napoleon changed the Consulate
    • The people voted, electing Napoleon
      • “First Consul for life”
napoleonic code
Napoleonic Code
  • Commission drafted new law codes beginning 1800
  • 1804 Civil Code (for France) goes into effect
    • By 1810, new laws in commercial and criminal cases had been developed
    • *Reaffirmed principle of citizens’ equality before the law
    • Marriage completely secularized – divorce restricted
    • Women: patriarchal society – obedience – no political voice
    • Penalties for political crimes increased
  • Sig: codification of laws for all – introduced to other countries under Napoleonic rule
concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
  • PopePius VI condemned clergy who signed CCC

(Bishop) Talleyrand = “stained with perjury and guilty of desertion for relinquishing his church into the hands of laymen of his own authority.”

  • Danger of split – moves Pius VII to reconciliation with Napoleon
  • 10th draft finally approved by both sides
    • Recognizes Catholic faith is of majority of French citizens – but not national religion
    • French gov’t authority to nominate bishops – but Pope invests -- bishops choose priests
    • Pope won’t interfere with old church lands now owned by others
  • Napoleon adds “Organic Articles” reestablishing Gallicanism!
  • Sig: Church re-established after 11 years of suppression, but under French control!
education reforms
Education Reforms
  • State-controlled system of secondary schools
  • French Academy restored 1795
  • Professional and technical schools developed as well
    • E.g. École Polytechnique
  • Public and some private schools run by a gov’t agency
warfare world war from 1792 1815
Warfare[“World War” from 1792-1815!]

1792-1795, 1st Coalition – Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, Spain, Port; Prussia accepts France as Protector of Germany; Spain allies w/ France b/c of Gibraltar

1797 Austria signs treaty of Campo Formio (gives over Belgium; France gets Left Bank of Rhine)

1799 2nd Coalition – R, GB, A, OE, Port, Naples, Vatican

GB defeats Nap. @ Nile (BUT Napoleon returns home w/stories of VICTORY); Nap. Sets out to recapture Italian territories

1801 Peace of Luneville – Fr. Advances on Vienna, Austria sues for peace

1802 Peace of Ameins – Great Britain backs off (1 year of European peace)

“shame of princes” – German princes of Left Bank of Rhine bribe French for Right Bank territory; ultimately leads to Confederation of the Rhine (1806)

stages of occupation
Stages of Occupation
  • Stage 1 = military conquest & occupation
  • Stage 2 = establishment of native satellite gov’t.
    • draft new constitution
    • regularize relationships w/ France (Spain and Grand Duchy of Warsaw stopped here)
  • Stage 3 = great internal reform & reorganization
    • esp. Belgium, Rhine territories, Italy and bulk of Germany
    • Reform all that is FEUDAL!!!
types of reform
Types of Reform
  • Church losses position as public authority
    • Inquisition abolished/church property confiscated
    • religious tolerance
  • Guilds abolished
  • gen. legislation of towns & provinces
  • internal tariffs removed (free trade)
  • Napoleonic Code accepted
  • hereditary office and sale of office abolished / personal expenses sep. from gov’t. expenses
  • common tax = land tax

BUT, no self government& all dependent states must supply money & soldiers

napoleonic empire
Napoleonic Empire
  • Crowned himself emperor Dec. 3, 1804
  • 1805 “King of Italy”
  • Established highly organized central gov’t
    • 83 French departments run by Prefects
      • Dismantled local authorities est. during FR
    • Linked his authority to the countryside
  • Reorganized tax collection
    • Helped to put France on solid financial ground
    • No tax exemptions for anyone
    • Taxes collected by professionals
warfare con t
Warfare (con’t.)
  • 1804 Napoleon’s Coronation;
  • War of the Third Coalition, 1805-1807
    • Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden vs. France
      • 17 Oct. 1805 at Ulm in Bavaria defeats Austria: goes on to capture Vienna
      • 2 December 1805 at Austerlitz (110 km north of Vienna) defeats Russ./Aus. – “greatest victory”
        • Austria signs Treaty of Pressburg; Russia retreats to Poland
        • Holy Roman Empire disbanded by Napoleon
      • Nap. creates Confederation of Rhine 1806
        • Napoleon is “protector”
        • HREmperor Francis II becomes Francis I of Austrian Empire
    • Prussia enters war vs. France
      • Jena and Auerstädt October 1806
      • (Nap. begins Arc de Triumphe!)
warfare con t1
Warfare con’t.
  • 1807 – Victory atFriedland (June 14)
    • Swift defeat pushes Russia to ally with France vs. Britain
    • Treaty of Tilsit: Alexander Iaccepts Nap. as “emperor of the West” – fears internal Russian revolt if France invades & wouldn’t mind being “Emperor of East”

- Breaks Polish territories from Prussia and forms Duchy of Warsaw; Fr. force occupation of Prussia

  • Reign of the Bonapartes
      • Joseph, King of Naples till 1808
        • Spain 1808 on (guerilla warfare – never “won”)
      • Louis, King of Holland
      • Jerome, King of Westphalia
      • Caroline, Queen of Naples 1808
  • Austrian War of Liberation 1809
    • Nap. takes Austrian Poland for Grand Duchy of Warsaw /
  • Now…for Britain!
continental system
Continental System
  • Effort to destroy British economy (“nation of shopkeepers”)
    • Britain 1805 confirms naval superiority – never a large army on mainland – Nap. will fight sea power with land power
    • So Berlin Decree, 1806: blockade British ships
    • So British “Order in Council,” 1807 all ships must stop in British port before moving on to Napoleonic port
    • So Milan Decree, 1807: retaliation, confiscate British goods
  • Continental System = colossal failure for French but not for British
disaster
Disaster
  • Peninsular War, 1808-1814
    • France occupied Spain and attempts to take over Portugal
    • Spanish rise up against French (Nap. 1st defeat)
    • Serious drain financially and militarily / Spanish guerillas supported by Lord Wellington
  • Russian Campaign, June 1812 – 611,000 men
    • France invades to punish Russia for refusing to help the Continental System
    • 3 month march to Moscow – short of food – ½ die
    • Battles severe – winter worse – scorched earth policy of Russians – Napoleon returns with 111,000!
    • Beginning of the end
  • Leipzig or Battle of the Nations Oct. 1813 driven back to France
the end or is it
The End…or is it?
  • 11 April 1814, Napoleon abdicates
    • Allied forces move him to Elba
    • Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, declared King of France – Bourbons restored!
    • 1st Treaty of Paris: May 1814 – old France
  • “100 Days”
    • Napoleon returns to France March 1, 1815
    • Reaches Paris and heads for Belgium – wants to disperse Congress of Vienna!
    • Defeated at Waterloo, 18 June 1815 - Wellington
    • Napoleon sent to St. Helena island where he dies in 1821
    • 2nd Treaty of Paris: must pay now