Aristotelian categories: (1) National family (biological unity) (2) Single area, compact and self-contained (3) Unified culture, religion (4) Citizen body based on leisure to serve the common good. Wealthier class. Soldier = citizen. Greek polis cohesion.
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(1) National family (biological unity)
(2) Single area, compact and self-contained
(3) Unified culture, religion
(4) Citizen body based on leisure to serve the common good. Wealthier class. Soldier = citizen.Greek polis cohesion
Citizenship began with undesirables from other areas.
Citizens added according to need and desirable qualities:
-Men willing to serve as soldiers or auxiliaries
-Service industries to army (food suppliers, leather workers, slavers, merchants, etc.)
Rome has no recognized borders.
Roman citizenship is a series of privileges, not a single entity. Roman citizenship is not based on class, occupation, religion, or ethnic similarity.
The number of citizens meant that service was almost always voluntary. Rome's liberal policy of granting citizenship gave it a very large base from which to draw soldiers. From 494 B.C. Soldiers were paid, in addition to bonuses from booty.
As Rome expands, Roman law is extended to all the provinces by 'martial law'. This gives locals a second court system (often a more objective one) in which they can pursue the vindication of their rights. The provincial governor oversees this local system.