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articulation n.
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  1. articulation a specific, gradually developing motor skill that involves mainly peripheral motor processes involved in the planning and execution of sequences of overlapping gestures that result in speech

  2. phoneme the smallest unit within a language that is able, when combined with other units, to establish word meanings and distinguish among them.

  3. phonology the study of the meaningful units of sound within a language; the description of the systems and patterns of phonemes that occur in a language.

  4. Articulatory phonetics: basic terms • vowels: • tense = /I, e, 3, u, o, O/ • rounded = /u, U, o, O, 3/ • consonants: • sonorants (semivowels=nasals, liquids, glides) • obstruents (stops, fricatives, affricates) • organ, place, manner, voicing • monophthong,diphthong (onglide,offglide)

  5. Place-manner-voice • Voiced [b,d,g,v,D, z, Z, dZ, m, n, N, l, r, w, j] • Voiceless [p, t, k, f, T, s, S, tS, h]

  6. Place-manner-voice categories: • Place labial [p,b,f,v,m,w] dental [T,D] alveolar [t,d,s,z,n,l] postalveolar [S,Z,tS,dZ] palatal [j,r] velar [k,g,N] glottal [h]

  7. Place-manner-voice • Manner stop-plosives: [p,b,t,d,k,g] fricatives: [f,v,T,D,s,z,S,Z,h] affricates: [tS, dZ] nasals: [m,n,N] liquids: [l, r ] glides: [w, j]

  8. Coarticulation:Assimilation/harmony processes • Contact assimilation • remote assimilations • progressive assimilations • regressive assimilations • total assimilations • partial assimilations

  9. Syllable structure: • peak = most prominent, acoustically intense • onset = syllable release • coda = syllable arrest

  10. Assessing medial position Goldman Fristoe-2 Test of Articulation: [d] in “window” = onset of unstressed, open syllable, preceded by consonant made in same place of articulation (CVCCV) [T] in “bathtub” = coda of stressed syllable, followed by onset of closed syllable (CVCCVC) [n] in “banana” = onset of stressed, open syllable in a trisyllabic word;reduplicated syllables (CVCVCV) [l] in “balloons = onset of stressed, closed syllable with bilabial [b] and rounded [u] (CVCVCC)

  11. Diacritics • dentalization • palatalization • velarization • lateralization • partial devoicing • partial voicing • aspiration

  12. Diacritics (continued) • unaspiration • unreleased • syllabic consonant • labialization • nonlabialization • derhotacization • rounding/unrounding

  13. Diacritics (continued) • raised • lowered • advanced • retracted • nasalized • glottal stop • flap

  14. Distinctive features “The distinctive features of an individual phoneme would be those aspects of the process of articulation and their acoustic consequences that serve to contrast one phoneme from another.”

  15. Distinctive features of phonemes • Major Class features (sonorant, consonantal, vocalic) • Cavity features (coronal, anterior, distributed, nasal, lateral, high, low, back, round) • Manner features (continuant, delayed release, tense) • Source features (heightened subglottal pressure, voicing, stridency) • Prosodic features

  16. Chomsky & Halle’s Distinctive Features 1. vocalic/nonvocalic 2. consonantal/nonconsonantal 3. coronal/noncoronal 4. anterior/nonanterior 5. high/nonhigh 6. back/nonback 7. low/nonlow 8. nasal/nonnasal 9. round/nonround 10. continuant/noncontinuant 11. tense/nontense 12. voice/nonvoice 13. strident/nonstrident

  17. [p] and [b]; voiceless and voiced bilabial stops replace [t] and [d]; voiceless and voiced coronal alveolar stops replace [f] and [v]; v.l.& v. labiodental fricatives [s] and [z]; v.l. & v. coronal alveolar apico-alveolar fricatives; [S],[Z];v.l.&v. coronal prepalatal fricatives.; [T][D];v.l.& v. apico- dental fricatives. Distinctive features versusorgan, place, voice and manner

  18. [p],[b] = (-)strident (-)continuant [t],[d] = (-) strident (-)continuant (+) diffuse [f],[v] = (+)strident (+)continuant [s],[z] = (+)strident [S],[Z]= (+)strident [s],[z] = (+)continuant [S],[Z]= (+)continuant [T],[D]=(+)continuant [S],[Z] =(-) diffuse Distinctive feature versusorgan, place, voice, manner

  19. Distinctive feature systems focused attention on the components of phonemes rather than the production of phonemes. Another important aspect of distinctive features is naturalness versus markedness: • natural = simple to produce, occuring often e.g., [p] • marked = dfficult to produce, occurring less often, e.g., [tS]

  20. Phonologically disordered children tend to substitute more unmarked/natural classes for marked/unnatural classes • Voiceless obstruents for sonorants • obstruents for sonorants • stops for fricatives • fricatives for affricates • low front vowels for other sounds • close-tense vowels for open-lax vowels • anterior consonants for other consonants • simple consonants for complex consonants

  21. Generative phonologyFive features of phonemes: • Major class features: is it a consonant, vowel or inbetween? • Cavity features: where is it produced? • Manner of articulation features: how is it produced? • Source features what’s the energy source? • Prosodic features

  22. Phonological rules for pluralizing • Add underlying representation /z/ e.g., [dOg] > [dOgz] • maintain same voice as root word ending e.g., [k{t]> [k{ts] • if underlying representation and root word ending are made in the same place of articulation, add a schwa.

  23. Notation for phonological rules: •  becomes or “can be rewritten as” • / “in the environment of” • — indicates location of changed segment • #—indicates the beginning of a word • —#indicates the end or final word position • V—V is intervocallic word position • Ø indicates the deletion of a segment • C indicates a consonant segment • CC(C) indicates two or three consonants

  24. t/s or s>t; d/z or z>d: in distinctive feature “talk” = +cons +cons +cor +cor +ant > +ant +cons -cons +strid -strid (where #—and —#)

  25. Natural phonology Patterns of speech are governed by an innate, universal set of phonological processes.

  26. “A phonological process is a mental operation that applies in speech to substitute for a class of sounds or sound sequences presenting a common difficulty to the speech capacity of the individual.” Stampe (1979)

  27. Phonological processes are innate and universal; • Phonological processes are easier for the child to produce and are substituted for sounds, sound classes, or sound sequences when the child’s motor capacities do not yet allow their norm realization; • All children begin with innate speech patterns but must progress to the language specific system that characterizes their native language.

  28. Phonological processes are used to constantly revise existing differences between the innate patterns and the adult norm production; • Children go through developmental steps until the goal of adult phonology is reached; • Disordered phonology is seen as an inability to realize this “natural” process of goal- oriented adaptive change.

  29. Mechanisms for revisions, as children work toward adult norms: • Limitation e.g., first stops for all fricatives and then through limitation, stops for all sibilants • Ordering random substitutions become orderly • Suppression process(es) no longer used

  30. Syllable Structure Processes • Cluster reduction • Reduplication total or partial • Weak syllable deletion • Final consonant deletion • Epenthesis

  31. Consonant cluster substitution fronting labialization alveolarization stopping affrication deaffrication Denasalization gliding of liquids/fricatives vowelization derhotacization voicing Devoicing Stridency deletion Substitution Processes

  32. Assimilation Processes (Harmony) • Labial assimilation • Velar assimilation • Nasal assimilation • Liquid assimilation

  33. Use of phonological processes by phonologically impaired children • Persisting normal processes • chronological mismatch • systematic sound preferences • unusual or idiosyncratic processes • variable use of processes

  34. Some segments (or groups of segments) may have a controlling influence on others; there may be a hierarchical arrangement between segments and other linguistic units. Non-linear or multilinear phonologies are a group of phonological theories that study the interaction between various levels of phonological and linguistic control

  35. Principles of movement development applied to oral mechanism • Development is a continuous process. • The sequence remains the same, although the rate may vary. • Movements develop from head to tail. • Gross motor precedes fine motor control. • Stability allows for advanced and accurate mobility.

  36. Principles of movement development applied to oral mechanism (cont.) • Movements develop from proximal to distal • Movements develop from medial to lateral • Abnormal structure leads to adjustment in motor function • Abnormal tone/movement in one part of the body leads to adjustment in motor function somewhere else.

  37. Principles of movement development applied to oral mechanism (cont.) • Early learning is a sensorimotor experience • Complex motor activities are monitored through continuous sensory feedback. • Rapid, precise sequential movements are dependent upon the ability to perform discrete movements. • Movement patterns are based upon economy of movement.

  38. Prelinguistic stages • Birth - two months: Reflexive/vegetative (quasi-resonant nuclei) • 2 - 4 mo: cooing and laughter • 4 - 6 mo: vocal play • 6 months: canonical babbling reduplicated and nonreduplicated • 10 months: jargon/variegated babbling

  39. Predictive value of babbling: • Less language growth is seen in children with more vocoid babble compared to those with more contoid babble; • greater language growth is related to greater babble complexity • greater language growth is related to increased diversity of concoid productions

  40. Vocables • Phonetically consistent forms (PCFs) • Proto-words • Quasi-words

  41. THE FIRST WORD an entity of relatively stable phonetic form that is produced consistently by the child in a particular context and is recognizably related to the adultlike word form of a particular language.

  42. Acquisition of vowel sounds • first 50 word stage: [a, i, u] • preschool stage reached by age 2: [a, i ,u, o, V, @] reached by age 3: [ E, O ] reached by age 4: [ I, e, {, U] • consensus is that vowels are in by 3-4 years

  43. Developmental sequence of vowels • Group 1: early developing vowels are [i A u o V] • Group 2: intermediate vowels are [{ U O @] • Group 3: later developing vowels are [e E I @` 3`]

  44. Acquisition of consonants during the first 50 word stage: Best guess: [ b, m, p, t, d, k, g, S, n, w, h ] significant individual variability some children show sound preferences

  45. Potentially intrusive variables: • Isolated words or connected speech • length of words • stress patterns • word familiarity • number of words tested for each position • effects of sounds in words - harmony • conditions of data collection

  46. Summary of Vihman & Greenlee (1987)Subjects were ten three-year olds: • Stops and fricatives  [T] by all subjects • >50% substituted [r] and [l] and used palatal fronting ( [Ss] ) • 2/10 demonstrated their own particular style of phonological acquisition • 73% judged as unintelligible, with range of 54-80% • the more complex the syntax, the worse the articulation

  47. Development of consonant clustersAgeInitial Final4 pl, bl, kl, gl mp, mpt, mps, Nk pr, br, tr, dr, kr lp, lt, rm, rt, rk tw, kw pt, ks, sm, sn, sp, st, sk ft 5 gr, fl, fr, str lb, lf rd, rf, rn6 skw lk rb, rg, rT, rdZ,rst rtS, nt, nd, nT7 spl, spr, skr sk, st, kst sl, sw lT, lz Sr, Tr dZd8 kt, sp

  48. Processes disappearing by age 3: • Weak syllable deletion • Final consonant deletion • Doubling (repetition of a word, [gogo] • Reduplication • Diminutization (use of diminutives) • Velar fronting • Consonant assimilation • Prevocalic voicing

  49. Processes persisting after age 3: • Cluster reduction • Epenthesis • Gliding • Vocalization, e.g., [pipo] for “people” • Stopping • Depalatalization • Final devoicing