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The Extraordinary Properties of Water. Warm up When atoms loose or gain electrons and become charged, What are they called? What are positively charged ones called? What are the negatively charged ones called?. H. H. Water.

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the extraordinary properties of water
The Extraordinary Properties of Water

Warm up

When atoms loose or gain electrons and become charged, What are they called?

What are positively charged ones called?

What are the negatively charged ones called?




  • A water molecule (H2O), is made up of threeatoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen.


water is polar
Water is Polar
  • In each water molecule, the oxygen atom attracts more than its "fair share" of electrons
  • The oxygen end “acts” negative
  • The hydrogen end “acts” positive
  • Causes the water to be POLAR
  • However, Water is neutral (equal number of e- and p+) --- Zero Net Charge
hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules
Hydrogen Bonds Exist Between Water Molecules
  • Formed between a highly Electronegative atom of a polar molecule and a Hydrogen
  • One hydrogen bond is weak , but many hydrogen bonds are strong
interaction between water molecules
Interaction Between Water Molecules

Negative Oxygen end of one water molecule is attracted to the Positive Hydrogen end of another water molecule to form a HYDROGEN BOND

properties of water
Properties of Water
  • At sea level, pure water boils at 100 °C and freezes at 0 °C.
  • The boiling temperature of water decreases at higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressure).
  • For this reason, an egg will take longer to boil at higher altitudes
  • Attraction between particles of the same substance (why water is attracted to itself)
  • Results in Surface tension (a measure of the strength of water’s surface)
  • Produces a surface film on water that allows insects to walk on the surface of water
Cohesion …

Helps insects walk across water


Introduction: Surface tension refers to water’s ability to stick to itself”. Surface tension van be measured and observed by dropping water (drop by drop) onto a penny. The number of water drops that can fit on a penny will surprise you.

  • Use the dropper and count how many drops of plain tap water you can fit on a penny.

QUESTION: How does soap affect water’s surface tension?

Rewrite the question and then write a hypothesis that answers the question at the top of page 19 in your BIN.


Test your hypothesis by comparing the number of drops of plain tap water to the number of drops of soapy water.

Do 5 trials of each and determine their averages

Create a data table for your results below your hypothesis on page 19 of your BIN

5. Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Write a paragraph below your data table (using complete sentences) that explains how soap affects the surface tension of water, using your data to help you answer the question. Suggest a reason for your observation (why did it happen). Support or reject your hypothesis.

  • Attraction between two different substances.
  • Water will make hydrogen bonds with other surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton.
  • Capillaryaction-water molecules will “tow” each other along when in a thin glass tube.
  • Example: transpiration process which plants and trees remove water from the soil, and paper towels soak up water.
adhesion causes capillary action
Adhesion Causes Capillary Action

Which gives water the ability to “climb” structures

adhesion also causes water to
Adhesion Also Causes Water to …

Attach to a silken spider web

Form spheres & hold onto plant leaves

water is less dense as a solid
Water is Less Dense as a Solid
  • Ice is less denseas a solid than as a liquid (ice floats)
  • Liquid water has hydrogen bonds that are constantly being broken and reformed.
  • Frozen waterforms a crystal-like lattice whereby molecules are set at fixed distances.

Water is Less Dense as a Solid

  • Which is ice and which is water?
  • Ability to maintain a steady state despite changing conditions
  • Water is important to this process because:

a. Makes a good insulator

b. Resists temperature change

c. Universal solvent

d. Coolant

e. Ice protects against temperature extremes (insulates frozen lakes)

  • Ionic compounds disperse as ions in water
  • Evenly distributed
    • Substance that is being dissolved
    • Substance into which the solute dissolves