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LOGO. "Turtle Graphics“ for kids. . History. Logo: from Greek logos for “word” Developed by a team at MIT in 1960s Notable: Seymour Papert Mathematician from Geneva Worked with Piaget who influenced him Designed as a dialect of LISP. Why the Turtle?.

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Logo

LOGO

"Turtle Graphics“ for kids.


History
History

  • Logo: from Greek logos for “word”

  • Developed by a team at MIT in 1960s

  • Notable: Seymour Papert

    • Mathematician from Geneva

    • Worked with Piaget who influenced him

  • Designed as a dialect of LISP


Why the turtle
Why the Turtle?

  • Originally a robotic creature sat on floor

    • Domed shape with shell-like electronics casing

    • Slow movement of device

  • Directed to move around and draw by typing commands at computer

  • Designed to be programmed by children

  • Less expensive version created on computer


Evolution

Object Logo

MacLogo

Logo Learner

IBM Logo

Comenius Logo

WIN LOGO

PC LOGO

LEGO LOGO

LEGO LOGO

Evolution

  • 130 existing implementations

  • Driven by commercial and regional factors

1977

1985

1993

1967

2003

TILOGO

Apple LOGO

Atari Logo

LOGO Writer

Logo Grafico

MicroWorlds LOGO

Mach Turtles Logo

UCB Logo

MSWLogo


Language concepts
Language Concepts

  • Basic commands

  • Control Structures

    • while condition [instruction list]

    • until condition [instruction list ]

    • repeat number [instruction list]

  • Recursion (preferred paradigm)

  • Scoping

    • Global variables: if not declared before use

    • Local variables:

      • may be declared

      • Input variables for functions are local


Basic commands
Basic commands

  • Forward 100 (FD 100) - moves the turtle forward 100 units

  • Back 50 (BK 50) - moves the turtle back 50 units

  • Right 45 (RT 45) - turns the turtle 45 degrees to the right

  • Left 90 (LT 90) - turns the turtle 90 degrees to the left

  • Home - Returns the turtle to its origin

  • ClearSceen (CS) - Erases the screen


Features
Features

  • Graphics / Music

  • Extensibles: basic operations “primitives.”

  • Working Definitions: allows for user-defined new definitions

  • Modularity

  • Interactivity

  • Flexibility


Recursion
Recursion

to spiral :size

if :size > 30 [stop] ; a condition stop fd :size rt 15 ; many lines of actionspiral :size *1.02 ; the tailend recursive call

end


Msw logo implemenation
MSW LOGO Implemenation

Source: http://www.softronix.com


Example square
Example: Square

  • Turtle Moves forward 100 units and

    turns 90º 4 times

    FD 100 RT 90 FD 100 RT 90

    FD 100 RT 90 FD 100 RT 90

    REPEAT 4 [FD 100 RT 90]

Source: http://mckoss.com/logo/


Examples
Examples

Source: http://www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/


Future of logo
Future of Logo

  • New Releases of LOGO:

    • NetLogo

      • Parallel modeling and simulation

      • Northwestern University

    • StarLogo

      • MIT