A Metacognitive Approach to Social Skills Training-Revised (MASST-R) Presented by Patti Whetstone, Ed. D. Western Kentucky University Patti.firstname.lastname@example.org
Motivational Beliefs A Metacognitive Approach to Social Skills Training - Revised is built around the following behavior postulates: • Belief follows behavior. After behavior changes, so do beliefs. • Generalization requires metacognition. To change behavior across settings, metacognitive strategies must be learned.
What is Metacognition? • Osman and Hannafin (1992, 1994) identified various elements of metacognition. These include: • learner awareness of which strategies are used, and should be used, for certain tasks; • knowing when one doesn’t understand and knowing how to take remedial action to ensure successful comprehension; • and making metacognitive adjustments when one makes an error. • These instructional strategies and procedures model the self-regulation metacognitive strategies of self-direction, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-correction strategies that students are taught through MASST-R.
What is Metacognition? • Metacognition has often been called “thinking about thinking” or “knowing how you know” • Characterized by reflective metacognitive questioning: • Did I get it? • How do I know? • What do I do if I didn’t get it? • Leads to “knowing what to do when you don’t know what to do” • Metacognition teaches self-regulation
Who Needs to Learn Metacognition Strategies? • Research suggests that the social, problem-solving and academic skills of students with varying cognitive abilities are greatly enhanced by metacognitive instruction (Howard, McGee, Shia, & Hong, 2001; Rosenthal-Malek & Yoshida, 1994; Swanson, 1990). • Because metacognitive strategies are essential to success in social, academic, and adult situations, all students must master these strategies. Such skills enhance problem solving, goal setting, and goal achievement.
Who Can Learn Metacognitive Strategies? Elementary through Adulthood Regular and Special Education Gifted and Talented At-Risk
In Metacognitive Training The Leader facilitates • Students discover • Both share
What Does the Research on Social Skills Say? Effective social skills programs are comprised of two essential elements: • a teaching process that uses a behavioral/social learning approach, and • a universal language or set of steps that facilitates the learning of new behavior. Interventions can be implemented at a school-wide, specific setting, classroom, or individual level, and at all levels the emphasis is on teaching the desired skill, not punishing negative behaviors. http:www.naspcenter.org
Unique Approach: Metacognition Incorporated into the Social Skills Research Research: Must have a teaching process • Lessons providing metacognitive teaching techniques and student learning strategies. Research: Must have a universal language and set of skills steps • Metacognitive language • Lessons offer a sequential, spiral series of activities in a variety of settings • School-wide • Specific settings • Classroom • Individual
Metacognitive Strategies Used in the Social Skill Training Facilitator Strategies Student Performance Techniques Student Metacognitive Strategies
Metacognitive Facilitator Strategies Questioning What is important? Probing Why is it important? How did I decide? Outloud Thinking When I was trying to decide, I tried this …. Modeling Facilitators model first, students perform.
What is Metacognitive Questioning? Metacognition relates to an awareness of one’s own learning and to reflective thinking, before, during, and afterward. Questioning is used in discussions, often mini-brainstorm sessions. Osmond and Hannafin (1994) suggested questions the learner might ask: • Before learning – Do I know what to do and how to do it? • During learning – Am I doing this as I had planned? Is it working? • Following learning – Did I get it? How do I know? What do I do if I didn’t get it?
What is Outloud Thinking? Martinez (2006) suggests that the use of think-alouds or out-loud thinking by teachers during problem-solving can explicitly model how to use metacognitive strategies in problem-solving. “I recall when I was in a similar situation. I felt ….. But then something happened to prove differently. That was ………. • Share your own experiences • Share process of learning from experience • Share steps that led to learning from experience • Model Performance Techniques – Positive Self-talk, Verbal Rehearsal, Visual Rehearsal
Metacognitive Student Strategies Am I following the correct procedure/ process/course of action? Do I know what I need to do to reach my goal/get what I want/need? Is my choice/ behavior correct (does it get me what I want/need? Do I know how to fix it when I mess up/it’s not working?
Student Performance Techniques for Applying Metacognitive Strategies Self Talk This is something I can do. Visual Rehearsal Imagine doing it this way. Verbal Rehearsal Imagine saying this.
What is Positive Self-Talk? Researchers note the relationship between “think alouds” and the self-talk that allows students to use what they have learned to coach themselves through the metacognitive processes necessary to solve social problems and perform social behaviors with skill. Martinez (2006) noted that persistence in the face of difficulty can be crucial. Metacognitive thought can support persistence and focus. “I know I can do this.” “I feel good about myself, because …” • Set a positive expectation for performance. • Reinforce positive self-perception through specific self-affirmations. • Practice positive self-talk.
What is Verbal Rehearsal? Meichenbaum (1977) developed a self-instructional model that directs the teacher to model positive self-talk, think out loud while the student performs the skills, have the student perform the skill while talking out loud, have the student perform the skills while whispering, and have the student perform the skills while talking to himself or herself. “When I am in that situation, I will say this …” • Practice what you might say in a difficult situation. • Create a framework for responding to others. 17
What is Visual Rehearsal? • Crick and Dodge (1994) propose steps involved in any given social situation: • paying attention to social cues or remembering key information; • mentally representing and interpreting the cues or giving meaning to the cues; • clarifying goals or selecting desired outcomes; • searching and practicing possible social responses, either from memory or formulation of new response possibilities; . “I can see myself speaking before the group.” • See yourself doing something difficult. • Practice the steps in doing the task by visualizing yourself doing each part. 18
MASST-R Conceptual Model Facilitator Strategies Student Performance Strategies Student Metacognitive Strategies
Metacognition Incorporated into Researchon Related Frameworks Frameworks: Character Education Social Emotional Learning (SEL) Response to Intervention (RtI) Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) Stand-alone program 20
Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports Character Education Directly teaching students metacognitive strategies to enhance social skills help to provide an internal locus of control through self-regulation. This is an integral part of student character development, including becoming ethical, responsible and caring citizens.
Four Supported Practices for Character Education • Promoting student autonomy and influence • Student participation, discussion and collaboration • Social skills training • Helping and social service behavior From: Character Education Informational Handbook and Guide, 2004
Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports Response to Intervention (RtI) • Response to Intervention (RtI) is defined as “the practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions” (Batsche et al., 2005). • Metacognitive Approach to Social Skills Training - Revised is a process that is consistent with the core principles of RtI. Similar to RtI, it offers to students intervention strategies that are systematically applied to obtain an internal locus of control for improving social and academic skills.
Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports Social Emotional Learning Lessons are organized within the skill clusters of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Self-Awareness Social-Awareness Self-Management Responsible Decision-Making Relationship Skills Reference for Social and Emotional Learning: http://www.casel.org
What is Social and Emotional Learning? Social and emotional learning (SEL) is the process of acquiring the skills to recognize and manage emotions, develop caring and concern for others, make responsible decisions, establish positive relationships, and handle challenging situations effectively. Research has shown that SEL is fundamental to children's social and emotional development. http://www.casel.org/
SEL and Student Learning Research • A meta-analysis of 165 studies of school-based prevention activities found interventions with social competency instruction significantly decreased delinquency, alcohol and drug use, and conduct problems and significantly decreased rates of student drop out/non-attendance (Wilson, Gottfried, & Najaka, 2001). • Well-designed evaluations of several SEL programs have demonstrated that SEL instruction can produce significant improvements in school attitudes, school behavior, and school performance (in Zins, J.E., Weissberg, R.P., Wang, M.L. and Walberg, H.J., 2003). These studies and more research results can be found at http://www.casel.org Search for ‘SEL and Academic Performance.’
MASST-R Lessons by SEL Skill Clusters and SEL Composite Skills • Self-Awareness – Lessons that include: • SEL Composite Skills • Identifying emotions and recognizing strengths and positive qualities • Social-Awareness – Lessons that include: • SEL Composite Skills • Identifying and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others and appreciating diversity • Self-Management – Lessons that include: • SEL Composite Skills • Managing feelings to effectively aid the handling of situations and goal setting for achievement of pro-social goals
MASST-R Lessons by SEL Skill Clusters and Composite Skills • Responsible Decision-Making – Lessons that include: • SEL Composite Skills • Analyzing situations in which a responsible decision must be made; assuming personal responsibility for ethical, safe, and legal behaviors; respecting others with compassion; and problem-solving for positive solutions • Relationship Skills – Lessons that include: • SEL Composite Skills • Communicating with positive verbal and nonverbal skills; establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships; negotiating to achieve mutually satisfactory resolutions to conflict; and effectively refusing to engage in unwanted, unsafe, unethical, or unlawful conduct
Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS)
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports the PBS Continuum Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports PBS School Practices and Interventions PBS School Practices and Interventions: • School Supports • Academic • Tutoring • Study Skills • Behavior Supports • Social Skills Supports
Metacognitive Social Skills Training Supports the Instructional Emphasis of Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) • Social skills are taught in the same way as academic skills (directly), and the reduction of problem behaviors is addressed by teaching functional replacement behaviors. • At the school-wide level, schools focus on defining, teaching, and encouraging school-wide expectations. • For students who are at-risk of social failure, instruction is active and focused on “core” skills, often within a pre-defined curricula. • For students who are high risk for social failure, specific social skills are taught based on functional behavioral assessment of problem behaviors. www.pbis.org
Metacognitive Social Skills Training as a Stand-Alone Social Skills Curriculum MASST-R provides: • Lessons for an entire school year • Pre-assessments to determine • Students in need of instruction • Skills for focused instruction • Flexibility to use as a modified program by • Teaching only the skills the students need • Scheduling the lessons to best fit the student needs • Data collection and post-assessments
Facilitator’s Role in MASST-R • Introduces the topics for discussion • Sets up activities related to the topic • Remains nondirective and nonjudgmental • Maintains journal and data collection • Facilitates discussions through • Metacognitive questioning/probing • Outloud thinking/modeling
Three Basic Ground Rules for MASST-R Lessons • What is said here remains here. • Only constructive disagreement is acceptable. • Only positive comments about others are acceptable.
Metacognitive Features of MASST-R • Metacognitive facilitatorquestioning/probing and outloud thinking/modeling techniques are embedded in the lessons. • Metacognitive student learning strategiesto self-direct, self-monitor, self-evaluate and self-correct are embedded in the lessons.
Research Support for Features Format of lessons Research has determined that effective social skills programs use highly organized, sequential lessons and activities that teach students to direct their own social performance, problem solving, and goal setting. Knowledge of one’s own thought process is dependent upon metacognitive awareness (Hair, Jager, Garrett, 2002; Schoenfeld, 1992; Wilson & Clarke, 2002). .
Features of MASST-R“Facilitator’s Manual” • Background information • Metacognitive framework • Orientation to the program
Features of MASST-R“Advanced Organizers” For each module to • Describe purpose and emphasis; • Define topics; • Bridge learning between modules; • Describe chapters in the module. • For each chapter to • Describe purpose; • Define key terms; • Identify goals for the learner.
Features of MASST-R “Lessons” • Are connected and spiral within chapters • Are divided into step-by-step activities • Use materials that are few and easily obtained • Begin with large group instruction and moveinto small groups • Include text boxes reinforcing metacognitive strategies used in lesson
Features of MASST-R“Debrief” • Occurs at the end of each lesson • Provides a summary review • Checks on what students have understood • Prompts use of metacognitive skill to reflect on learning
Features of MASST-R“Alerts” If at-risk behaviors occur during lessons • Student seems to need more individual time; or • Level of the student’s revelations inappropriate to the group. The facilitator • May provide individual time outside the social skills training; or • Arrange for another professional to provide that individual time.
Research Support for Features Homework Researchers found that practice in the home through homework, in the school through teacher prompting, and in the community through natural reinforcement promotes generalization (Cashwell, Skinner, & Smith, 2001; Chandler, Lubek, & Fowler, 1992; Gresham, 1998; Sontag, 1997; Sugai & Lewis, 1996).
Features of MASST-R“Graphic Organizers” • Most lessons have a homework extension • Some classwork and homework are revisited over time in subsequent lessons to reinforce and note changes in beliefs and behaviors
Features of MASST-R“Facilitator’s Guide for Conducting the Lesson” Scripts for lessons for guidance on • Class discussions • Facilitator’s role in the discussions • Role of metacognitive strategies highlighted in the lesson Note: This Guide is a model for conducting the lesson and is not meant to be used word-for-word. The Guide follows the same pattern in each lesson, so they serve as teaching prompts.
Research Support for Components Journaling Researchers found that keeping logs or journals to record self-reflections enables students to internalize and generalize both the social skills they are learning and the metacognitive self-awareness of their newly acquired social skills. Through the process of keeping the log and sharing it, new learning can be reinforced and extended (Radloff & de la Harpe, 2001; Hartley, 1998).
Features of MASST-R“Student Journal” • To reflect on and monitor one’s own learning • To examine their own progress in acquiring critical metacognitive skills • To document their own growth for their personal use and reinforcement by recording: • What they learned • How they will use it • What they need to practice • What they need to clarify
Features of MASST-R“Facilitator Journal” • To reflect on and monitor one’s own learning • To build expertise in using metacognitive skills • To increase expertise in modeling and prompting students’ use of metacognitive strategies. • A record of: • How the lesson went • How you think you might do it better next time • What needs follow-up
Features of MASST-R “Class Diary” Class historian keeps record of: • What the large and small groups develop. • Continuity across lessons • Observation, evaluation, and appreciation of progress.
Research Support for Components Cooperative Learning and Role-Playing Cooperative learning and role-playing have also been found to add power to social skills instruction. Brophy (1983), Gottfredson (1986, 1988), and Bremer and Smith (2004) suggested that the use of cooperative learning increases student engagement, teamwork, and appreciation for subgroup differences; and decreases misbehavior. Bremer and Smith (2004) added that role-playing fosters acquisition of positive social emotional skills.