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The Solar System

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  1. The Solar System Preview • Understanding Concepts • Reading Skills • Interpreting Graphics

  2. Understanding Concepts 1. Earth’s tides are most influenced by the gravitational pull of what celestial body? A. the sun B. Venus C. the moon D. Jupiter

  3. Understanding Concepts 1. Earth’s tides are most influenced by the gravitational pull of what celestial body? A. the sun B. Venus C. the moon D. Jupiter

  4. Understanding Concepts, continued 2. On what planet can we see an enormous atmospheric storm called the Great Red Spot? F. Mars G. Jupiter H. Saturn I. Mercury

  5. Understanding Concepts, continued 2. On what planet can we see an enormous atmospheric storm called the Great Red Spot? F. Mars G. Jupiter H. Saturn I. Mercury

  6. Understanding Concepts, continued 3. Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is an orbital ring consisting of what? A. asteroids B. comets C. meteors D. nebulae

  7. Understanding Concepts, continued 3. Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is an orbital ring consisting of what? A. asteroids B. comets C. meteors D. nebulae

  8. Understanding Concepts, continued 4. According to Newton, what fundamental force holds the solar system together and is responsible for the orbits of the planets? F. electromagnetism G. gravity H. weak nuclear force I. strong nuclear force

  9. Understanding Concepts, continued 4. According to Newton, what fundamental force holds the solar system together and is responsible for the orbits of the planets? F. electromagnetism G. gravity H. weak nuclear force I. strong nuclear force

  10. Understanding Concepts, continued 5. Before Copernicus proposed that the sun lay at the center of the solar system, many people believed in a geocentric model of the universe. Describe the geocentric model.

  11. Understanding Concepts, continued 5. Before Copernicus proposed that the sun lay at the center of the solar system, many people believed in a geocentric model of the universe. Describe the geocentric model. Answer: Earth is at the center, and all other objects orbit around it.

  12. Understanding Concepts, continued 6. Pieces of Earth’s moon brought back by astronauts show a composition similar to that of Earth’s mantle. What theory of the origin of the moon explains this fact?

  13. Understanding Concepts, continued 6. Pieces of Earth’s moon brought back by astronauts show a composition similar to that of Earth’s mantle. What theory of the origin of the moon explains this fact? Answer: The moon is a piece of the Earth that was knocked off by collision with a Mars-sized object.

  14. Understanding Concepts, continued 7. Which four planets are known as the gas giants?

  15. Understanding Concepts, continued 7. Which four planets are known as the gas giants? Answer: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

  16. Reading Skills A REGULAR VISITOR In 1682, a bright comet appeared in the night sky. An astronomer named Edmond G. Halley noticed that the comet matched the descriptions given of previous comets seen in 1531 and 1607. Halley theorized that this was the very same comet, in a 76-year orbit around the sun, and he predicted that the comet would return in 1758. Due to the gravitational pull of Jupiter and Saturn, the comet was a bit later than predicted, but it arrived in March 1759.

  17. Reading Skills, continued A REGULAR VISITOR, continued Since then, the comet has returned in 1835, 1910, and 1986. Halley’s comet is not expected to visit Earth again until 2061, but comet fans can see bits and pieces of the comet each year during the annual Orionids meteor shower. This meteor shower occurs when Earth crosses the comet’s orbital path, which is made of tiny debris particles of rock and ice, usually no bigger than grains of sand. Although they are very small, these tiny meteors make brilliant shooting stars when they strike Earth’s atmosphere, because they travel at nearly 145,000 km/h.

  18. Reading Skills, continued 8. For Halley’s comet, what lasts approximately 76 Earth years? A. one day B. one month C. one year D. one century

  19. Reading Skills, continued 8. For Halley’s comet, what lasts approximately 76 Earth years? A. one day B. one month C. one year D. one century

  20. Reading Skills, continued 9. After its 2061 appearance, when is Halley’s comet likely to be seen next? F. 2076 CE G. 2137 CE H. 2161 CE I. 2821 CE

  21. Reading Skills, continued 9. After its 2061 appearance, when is Halley’s comet likely to be seen next? F. 2076 CE G. 2137 CE H. 2161 CE I. 2821 CE

  22. Reading Skills, continued 10. How does Halley’s discovery illustrate the importance of keeping accurate records of observations in science?

  23. Reading Skills, continued 10. How does Halley’s discovery illustrate the importance of keeping accurate records ofobservations in science? Answer: Records of previous appearances allowed Halley to recognize the comet asbeing the same comet.

  24. Interpreting Graphics Directions (11–12): The graphic below shows two kinds of eclipses. Use the graphic to answer questions 11–12. (Diagrams are not to scale.) 11. What type of eclipse is each of the eclipses shown above? A. Eclipse A is a solar eclipse, and eclipse B is a lunar eclipse. B. Eclipse A is a lunar eclipse, and eclipse B is a solar eclipse. C. They are both solar eclipses. D. They are both lunar eclipses.

  25. Interpreting Graphics Directions (11–12): The graphic below shows two kinds of eclipses. Use the graphic to answer questions 11–12. (Diagrams are not to scale.) 11. What type of eclipse is each of the eclipses shown above? A. Eclipse A is a solar eclipse, and eclipse B is a lunar eclipse. B. Eclipse A is a lunar eclipse, and eclipse B is a solar eclipse. C. They are both solar eclipses. D. They are both lunar eclipses.

  26. Interpreting Graphics 12. Which phase of the moon is shown in each of the diagrams above?

  27. Interpreting Graphics 12. Which phase of the moon is shown in each of the diagrams above? Answer: PositionA: full moon, Position B: new moon

  28. Interpreting Graphics, continued Use the graphic below to answer questions 13–14. 13. During which phases of the moon will the tides be most extreme? F. full moon and new moon G. first quarter and third quarter H. waxing and waning gibbous I. waxing crescent and waxing gibbous

  29. Interpreting Graphics, continued Use the graphic below to answer questions 13–14. 13. During which phases of the moon will the tides be most extreme? F. full moon and new moon G. first quarter and third quarter H. waxing and waning gibbous I. waxing crescent and waxing gibbous

  30. Interpreting Graphics Use the graphic below to answer questions 13–14. 14. Why are tides weakest when Earth, the sun, and the moon are not aligned?

  31. Interpreting Graphics Use the graphic below to answer questions 13–14. 14. Why are tides weakest when Earth, the sun, and the moon are not aligned? Answer: When the Earth, sun and moon are at right angles as shown in the diagram, the directions in which ocean water is pulled don’t add up to high tides anywhere on Earth.