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I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics II. Africa: The Search for National Identities. I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics A. Decolonization Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Faruq > Republic, 1953 control of Suez.

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i the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities
I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics

II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

slide2
I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics A. Decolonization Egypt
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser
  • overthrows King Faruq
  • > Republic, 1953
  • control of Suez
slide3
I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics B. The Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • Arab League
  • rejects partition
  • May 1948, Israel
  • David Ben Gurion 1967, Nasser
  • threatens war
  • defeated by Israel
  • 1964, Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • 1967, UN Resolution 242
  • Soviet Union aids Arab states
  • U.S. aids Israel and Arab states
  • Yom Kippur War, 1973
  • Soviets and U.S. square off
  • 1974, Egyptian-Israeli agreement
slide4
The Middle East: Religion and Politics
  • C. The Politics of Oil
  • 1933, Ibn Sa’ud
  • concession to Standard Oil
  • > ARAMCO
  • OPEC
  • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
  • Embargo, 1973
  • D. Egyptian-Israeli Détente
  • 1977, Anwar Sadat
  • peace talks with Israel
  • Camp David, 1978
  • President Carter
  • Menachim Begin
  • Anwar Sadat
  • Sinai returned to Egypt
  • > Egypt expelled from Arab League
slide5
I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics
  • E. The Evolution of Turkey
  • Atatürk
  • Secularization 1946, multiparty elections
  • 1990s
  • Tansu Ciller, first female premier
  • Necmettin Erbakan, first Islamist
  • Refah party
  • Islamic reform
  • outlawed, 1998
  • Islamist Justice and Development Party
  • moderate
  • 2002, two-thirds majority
  • Recep Erdogan premier
slide6
I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics
  • F. The Iranian Revolution
  • U.S. v. Soviets
  • Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
  • Iranian Communist party (Tudeh)
  • Mohammad Mosaddeq, Prime Minister
  • 1978, student demonstrations
  • > 1979, Shah flees
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
  • Western trends reversed
  • Sharia reimposed
  • Iran-Iraq war
  • 1980, Hussein attacks Iran
  • 1989, armistice
  • 1997, Mohammad Khatami
  • (re-elected, 2001)
  • 1995, Mahmoud Almadinejad
slide7
(G. Toward a New Balance)
  • Iraq
  • Saddam Hussein
  • 1990, Kuwait attacked
  • UN response
  • Coalition
  • Jordan, PLO aid Iraq
  • 1991, Iraq bombed
  • 2003, overthrown
  • factional divisions
  • anti-U.S. insurgency H. Islamist Factions
  • Hamas
  • rejects Israel
  • Al-Qaeda
  • Osama Bin Laden
  • I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics
  • G. Toward a New Balance
  • Egypt
  • Anwar Sadat
  • Muslim Brotherhood
  • Hosni Mubarak
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • Intifada
  • 1993, Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin
  • Oslo Peace Accord Palestinian Authority 1994, Jordan and Palestine
  • 1995, Rabin assassinated 2001, Ariel Sharon
  • World Trade Center attacked
slide8
II. Africa: The Search for National Identities
  • A. Trends
  • 1950s, 1960s, independence for many
  • Organization of African Unity, 1963
  • 1980s, second wave of independence
  • Capitalism v. communism, socialism
  • Neocolonialism
  • ties remain with colonizers
  • IMF
  • Structural Adjustment Programs
  • market model
  • AIDS
slide9
II. Africa: The Search for National Identities
  • B. North Africa
  • Tunisia, Morocco
  • 1956, independence
  • Algeria
  • Front for National Liberation (FLN)
  • Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) 2004 Elections
  • Abelazic Bouteflika
  • Libya
  • Muammar al-Qadhaffi
  • 1969, overthrows monarchy
  • inspired by Nasser
  • Jamahiriya
  • socialism + Islam
  • 1977, “Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya”
  • Lockerbie bombing
slide10
(C. Middle Africa)
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • 1960, independence
  • Joseph Mobutu Sese Seko coup, 1965
  • > Zaïre
  • Laurent Kabila
  • uprising, 1997
  • 2000, assassinated
  • 2006, Joseph Kabila
  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities
  • C. Middle Africa
  • Ghana
  • 1957, Kwame Nkrumah
  • prime minister
  • > dictator
  • 1966, coup
  • > military rule
  • 1969, elections restored
  • 2000, John Kufuor
  • Nigeria
  • 1960, independence
  • 1966, military coup
  • 1967, Republic of Biafra
  • secession
  • Olesegun Obasanjo
  • elected 1993, 2003
slide11
(D. Northeastern Africa)
  • Sudan
  • Darfur
  • Janjaweed
  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities
  • D. Northeastern Africa
  • Ethiopia
  • Haile Selassie
  • 1973, famine
  • > military coup, 1974
  • Mengistu Haile Meriam
  • > socialism
  • Dergue, council 1991, Tigreans conflict with Eritrea
  • Somalia
  • Siad Barré, from Maréhan clan
  • 1991, civil war
  • > famine
  • UN forces
  • Rwanda
  • Hutus v. Tutsis
  • 1974, Juvenal Habyarimana
  • Hutu
  • 1990, Tutsi rebels from Uganda
  • > civil war
  • Hutu massacre of Tutsis, 1994
  • Paul Kagame Tutsi
slide12
II. Africa: The Search for National Identities
  • E. Southern Africa
  • 1974, Portuguese coup
  • > independence for colonies
  • Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau
  • Angola
  • National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
  • (UNITA)
  • aided by U.S.
  • Movement for the Popular Liberation of Angola (MPLA)
  • aided by Soviet Union and Cuba
  • Jonas Savimbi
  • 2002, killed
slide13
II. Africa: The Search for National Identities
  • (E. Southern Africa)
  • Zimbabwe
  • 1960s, rebellion against white rule
  • Joshua Nkomo, Robert Mugabe
  • boycott 1978 elections
  • > new elections, 1980
  • Mugabe president
  • South Africa
  • 1948, apartheid
  • Population Registration Act
  • Group Areas Act
  • based on Bantustans
  • Protest
  • 1956, women’s march, Pretoria
  • 1976, student protests
  • 1989, F. W. de Klerk
  • legalizes banned parties
  • frees Nelson Mandela
  • 1994, free elections
  • Mandela elected president
  • 1999, 2004
  • Thabo Mbeki president
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