Initial Response Actions ToConfined Space Emergencies No need to click to advance, the show will automatically advance.
Introduction • Under NO circumstances should rescuers enter a confined space unless they are trained, equipped, and supervised in accordance with OSHA regulations. • This Confined Space Awareness training program does NOT qualify participants to enter a confined space.
Introduction • Fire Departments ARE NOT exempt under the MOSH standard. • MOSH: Maryland Occupational Safety & Health
Occupational Safety And Health Administration • (Standards - 29 CFR) • Regulations • Permit-required confined spaces • - 1910.146 References
Confined Space Statistics • O.S.H.A. estimates 1.6 million employees enter confined spaces each year • 50,000 emergency responses and 60 fatalities occur as a result of confined space incidents yearly • 60% of confined space fatalities are would be rescuers
What Does This Tell Us? • Workers fail to recognize hazards • Workers under estimate the dangers • Workers become complacent • Workers will try to save their buddy
Confined Space Entry Permit • Permit required • Non-permit required SAMPLE
APermit-Required Confined Space CFR 1910.146 • Is a confined space that has a potential to have one or more of the following hazards: • Hazardous Atmospheres • Engulfment Hazards • Configuration Hazards • Energy Hazards • Other Hazards
Non-Permit Required Spaces • Does not contain or have the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere • A hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm
Asphyxiation Lacerations Blunt Trauma Toxic Gas Inhalation Claustrophobia Crushing Trauma Electric Shock Burns Heat Stress Heart Attack Confined Space Injuries/Illnesses
Asphyxiating Hazards • Oxygen Levels • 23.5% & above: High Oxygen Levels • 20.8 to 21%: Normal air oxygen levels • 19.5% & below:Low Oxygen Levels • Normal air: 20.9% O2, 78.1% nitrogen, 1% argon • Oxygen can be consumed or displaced
Hazards • Oxygen Deficient, Displaced or Enriched • Lack of Ventilation • Chemical Reactions • Flammable/Explosive Atmosphere • Toxic Atmosphere
How Confined Spaces Become Contaminated • Biological activity • Combustion • Adsorption • Insertion • Reaction
Determine If You Are Responding To A Confined Space • Meets The Criteria • Ensure PPE Is Available • Prevent Inappropriate Entries • Request Additional Resources
Storage Tanks Sewers Boilers Underground Vaults Tank Trucks Air Handlers Storm Drains Wells Pits Water Towers Rail Tank Cars Process Vessels Common Confined Spaces
Most all storage tanks are considered confined spaces
Underground Utility Vaults are considered confined spaces
Industrial facilities often have numerous confined spaces
Why Have You Been Called? • Person down due to what circumstances? • Entangled, Engulfed, Lost? • Has anyone attempted rescue? • Is the atmosphere capable of supporting life?
Rescue Vs. Recovery • Why Is Victim Down? • Conscious or Unconscious? • Estimate Time Frame? • Atmospheric Conditions? • How Long Until Proper Entry?
Engulfment Hazards • Silos • Gravel Pits • Tanks • Digesters • May be Liquids or Solids
Initial Actions Of The First Arriving Unit • Deny Entry / Access • Gather Hazard Information • Atmospheric Monitoring • Ventilation • Lock Out / Tag Out
Response Guidelines • Arrive On Scene, Take Command, Size-Up • Primary Assessment • UNSAFE ATMOSPHERE EXISTS UNTIL TESTED! • INITIATE TECHNICAL RESCUE TEAM IF NOT ALREADY DISPATCHED • Secure Reporting Party • Immediate assessment of hazards to rescuers • Victim assessment • Early decision- Rescue Vs Recovery
Transition To The Rescue Team • Face To Face Update • Assist With Equipment Set Up • Maintain Scene Security • Provide Scene Support
Safety Around The Space • Vehicle Placement • Exposure To Exhausted Air • Equipment / Personnel Over Confined Space Opening • Other Hazards May Be Present
Always Remember 1. When Conditions Deteriorate You Can’t Escape from The Nearest Window Or Door 2. Confined Spaces Are Unforgiving 3. You Only Get One Chance “Risk Vs. Benefit” 4. STAY SAFE
NOW IT’S TIME TO SEE HOW MUCH YOU REMEMBER Hit “Esc” to stop the show”