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Implement Food Safety Procedures SITXFSA001A. Revision from Lesson 4. Any questions?. What is a micro-organism?. What are the 6 major pathogenic bacteria in Australia that cause food poisoning? What are their food types and preventative measures?.

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Food Safety



DHS & MB V2.1 2011

revision from lesson 4
Revision from Lesson 4
  • Any questions?
  • What is a micro-organism?
  • What are the 6 major pathogenic bacteria in
  • Australia that cause food poisoning?
  • What are their food types and preventative measures?
  • How are spores different to bacteria?

DHS & MB V2.1 2011

lesson 5 outline
Lesson 5 Outline
  • Handout:
  • 7 Principles / Steps of HACCP
  • Homework:
  • 2nd Homework Task: Food Safety Standards (due last week)
  • To obtain a personal copy of The Food Standards Code,
  • Chapter 3, Standards 3.1.1. & 3.2.1. & 3.2.2. & 3.2.3.
  • Downloaded from:
  • Note: there is a very informative ‘guide’ to Standard 3.2.1.
  • Food Safety Programs (56 pages), 1st edition June 2007,
  • - strongly advise you obtain a copy for your reference.
  • Slides:
  • 7 Principles / Steps of HACCP
  • CCP’s.
  • Process Flow Diagrams Activity.
  • Food Preparation and Future Use or Consumption PFD Activity
  • (C or N) - due next lesson.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


The 7 Steps / Principles of HACCP

1. Hazard Analysis / Identification

2. Critical Control Points (CCP’s) or Critical Steps

3. Critical Limits

4. Monitoring

5. Corrective Actions

6. Recording

7. Validation / Verification

DHS & MB V2.1 2011

process flow charts ccp s
Process Flow Charts CCP’s
  • Cooking Food
  • Chilling Food
  • Reheating Prepared Food
  • Cold Holding
  • Hot Holding
  • Serving
  • Displaying
  • Self Service
  • Food Packaging
  • Purchasing / Ordering
  • Transporting / Delivering
  • Receiving
  • Dry Storage
  • Cold Storage
  • Frozen Storage
  • Thawing Food
  • Preparing
  • Processing

DHS & MB V2.1 2011

ccp example purchasing and receiving
CCP example: Purchasing and Receiving
  • Always buy from a registered supplier.
  • Store foods quickly after receiving a delivery.
  • Do not be tempted to buy discounted out-of-date food.
  • Check use-by and best-before dates.
  • Make sure foods are clearly labelled.
  • Foods must be free of pests.
  • Ensure packaging is not damaged.
  • Delivery vehicle and premises are clean & well maintained.
  • Chemicals are not stored with foods.
  • Frozen food is solid.
  • High-risk food is below 5°C.

Food must be checked for:

  • Quality / quantity / size.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP examples - Purchasing and Receiving

What do you need to check?

  • Check that packaging is not damaged.

Why do you need to check this?

  • Damaged packaging may let germs onto the food, or there might be a sign that insects or rodents

have been able to contaminate the food inside.

How do I avoid this problem?

  • Write to the supplier regarding the condition of food.

What do you do if something goes wrong?

  • Reject packaging in damaged packaging and return

to supplier.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Transporting Food

  • Transport food under temperature control.
  • Protect food from the likelihood of contamination.
  • Only use a dedicated (specifically designed) vehicle

for regular food transport.

  • Store in appropriate food storage containers.
  • Avoid second-hand foam or cardboard containers.
  • Utensils, crockery and cutlery need to be

protected from contamination.

  • Ensure the doors of the vehicle are not left open

during delivery.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Food Storage

  • Ensure that all surfaces such as walls, floors,

ceilings and shelves are thoroughly cleaned

and well maintained.

  • Store foods in original packaging, sealable air-tight containers

or covered to protect the food from contamination.

  • Ensure that containers are food-grade.
  • Do not store food on the floor.
  • Check use-by dates.
  • Remove any foods when the use-by-date has expired.
  • Rotate stock using the “first-in, first-out” principle.
  • Date and label foods that are not in their original


DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Dry Storage

  • Do not store dry goods in direct sunlight. It is best

to have no windows because of this reason.

  • Keep well ventilated - free from moisture and humidity.
  • Regularly check for the presence of pests.
  • Ensure that foods are stored correctly.
  • The dry goods is a good area to store packaging,

provided packaging is free from contamination.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Cold Storage

  • Regularly check temperatures are between 0 and 5°C.
  • Keep doors closed.
  • Door seals are to be clean and undamaged.
  • Raw foods stored below ready-to-eat foods.
  • Do not overload.
  • Do not store foods in opened cans as the metal

from the can may enter the food.

  • Store food in a way that ensures adequate

air circulation.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Thawing Food

  • Plan ahead.
  • Thaw frozen food in the refrigerator or cool room.
  • Thaw frozen food below ready-to-eat food.
  • Do not defrost more than you need.
  • Do not re-freeze.
  • Protect thawing foods by covering them.
  • Time – at least 24 hours.

Note: microwave ovens can be used for quick thawing: however

foods that are thawed this way should be cooked immediately.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Preparing / Processing

  • Staff to follow all hygiene procedures.
  • Keep raw food away from ready-to-eat foods.
  • Ensure all utensils are in good condition.
  • Thoroughly clean and sanitise all equipment.
  • Use disposable spoons for tasting.
  • Wash fruit and vegetables.
  • Avoid cross-contamination.
  • Limit preparation time of high-risk food to 1 hour.

Note: visual observation by supervisors should ensure that staff follow

all preparation procedures.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Cooking

  • All high-risk foods must be cooked to a required
  • core temperature (usually 75°C).
  • There are exceptions, for example, cooking fish or solid pieces
  • of red meat (cutlets, steaks and roasts) to customer preference.
  • Note: Reference Food Safety Program Template Supplementary Practices Section (No.1, V2).
  • Food poisoning bacteria may be present in undercooked foods.
  • Contamination from poor hygiene and incorrect
  • cleaning may occur.
  • Physical contamination may occur from damaged equipment .
  • Ideally high-risk food should be cooked without

interrupting the process.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Chilling Food

  • Chill food:

To below 21°C within 2 hours, then from 21°C

to below 5°C within a maximum of 4 hours.

  • Divide food into small portions or transfer food

into shallow containers to chill faster.

  • Cover food whilst chilling.
  • A ‘blast chiller’ must bring all food above 70°C

down below 5°C within 90 minutes.

If it is not achieving this, then it needsbe serviced

by an accredited repairer to work at peak efficiency.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Reheating

  • Reheat food to above 75°C.
  • Hold it at this temperature

for at least 2 minutes.

  • Reheat food rapidly.
  • Food can only be reheated once.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Cold Holding

  • Ensure the food display is supervised.
  • Provide separate serving utensils.
  • Provide protective barriers.
  • Display at below 5°C.
  • Food must be protected from the likelihood

of contamination.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Hot Holding

  • Clean and preheat the Bain-Marie before use.
  • Reheat food to above 75°C.
  • Freshly roasted red meats can be rare, <60°C.
  • Use a temperature setting that keeps food hotter

than 60°C.

  • Use a clean, calibrated thermometer to check the


  • Ensure the food temperature does not fall below


  • Do not overload the Bain-Marie.
  • Do not “Top up”, instead replace the whole tray.
  • Do not let labels or price tags touch the food.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


CCP example - Serving and Displaying

  • Serve food as quickly as possible.
  • Ensure food handling staff are trained.
  • Use a clean and sanitised thermometer to

ensure food is at appropriate temperature.

  • Allow a separate utensil for each food.
  • Apply 2 hour / 4 hour rule.

CCP example - Food Packaging

  • Check for any damaged packaging materials.
  • Store packaging material in a safe, clean place.
  • Make sure that the area used for packing

is clean and sanitary.

  • Only use material that is not likely to cause food


  • Be aware of the time taken to package any

high-risk foods.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


What are the 6 major CCP’s

for WAI Students?

  • Receiving
  • Storage (Cold, Frozen, Dry and Chemical)
  • Preparing / Processing
  • Cooking
  • Holding (Cold and Hot)
  • Serving

DHS & MB V2.1 2011



Cold Storage




for a salad





Frozen Storage




for a

frozen fish







Dry Storage

Cold Storage




for a





Cold Storage






Dry Storage

Frozen Storage

Cold Storage




for an







Cold Storage






Process Flow Diagram Question




Dry Storage Cold/frozen Storage



Cooling Cold/frozen Storage

What is wrong with this Reheat

Process Flow Diagram? Serving

(Return of leftover food)

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


Process Flow Diagram Activity (PFD)

1. 5 groupswrite down their specific scenario,which includes a food type

and the process it goes through in your food business.

These are:

a) A chicken breast is received at 8.30am, stored for 5 days and then cooked

and served at 1.15pm at 64C.

b) Beef mince is received at 8.45am, stored and then cooked as a lasagne,

allowed to cool at room temperature for 5 hours, stored and served at 7.45pm.

c) Potatoes are received at 10.30am, stored, made into a potato salad

with mayonnaise, covered and left out at room temperature for 5 hours

and served at 7.00pm on a buffet.

d) Rice is received at 10.00am, stored, cooked at 11.30am,

half is served at 12.15pm on a buffet in a bain marie and half is

served at 7.15pm on a buffet as wok-tossed special fried rice,

after being left out to cool for 5 hours.

e) Eggs are received at 7.00am, stored at room temperature until

11.30am, made into a fresh hollandaise sauce and used over the next

4 hours, stored at 58C on top of a bain marie and then discarded.

- You must then as a group produce a relevant PFD from your

scenario as detailed on the next slide 

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


Process Flow Diagram Activity (PFD) continued

2. You must individually drawa draft of the PFD, to use as personal

reference material when you are revising for the final tests for this unit.

Note: you must include the safe way (from start to finish) and what went wrong

– so what should have occurred (as CCP’s)!

3. You must include all relevant Critical Control Points (CCP’s).

CCP’s that can be included in your PFD are Ordering; Purchasing;

Transporting; Delivering; Receiving; Storage; Preparing; Processing;

Cooking; Chilling; Hot or Cold Holding; Reheating; Packaging;

Displaying; Serving; and Disposing.

Each CCP must be in a box and include an arrow between each in

the direction(s) it would go as per the specific food businesses procedures.

The maximum time allowed for steps 2 and 3 is 10 minutes.

4. Each group will present and explain their PFD to the rest of the class on

the whiteboard. Note: use different colours for correct and incorrect methods.

The maximum time allowed for each group is 5 minutes.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011

principle step 3 critical limits benchmarks
Principle/Step 3 - Critical Limits (benchmarks)
  • Set Critical Limits (benchmarks) by identifying the means

to control hazards (eliminate or reduce a hazard to an

acceptable level).

  • Not all steps are critical.
  • Commercial realities should be taken into account.
  • A CCP ‘Decision Tree’ promotes structured thinking
  • and consistent approach:

DHS & MB V2.1 2011




Not a CCP - Stop

Not a CCP - Stop

Not a CCP - Stop






Q1- Are control measures in place for the hazard?

Principle 2

Q2-Is the step designed to eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level?


Q3- could contamination occur or increase to unacceptable level

CCP Decision Tree


Q4 -Are control measures in place for the hazard

principle step 3 critical limits benchmarks1
Principle/Step 3 - Critical Limits (benchmarks)
  • Know its intended use:
  • - intended customer.
  • This defines specific customer requirements.

- when, where and how are you producing food?

  • - where do you serve the food?
  • - how long are the shelf-life of goods and dry goods?
  • Note: buying in bulk is not always the correct method.
  • Do not overload fridges, freezers and the dry stores.

Know your limits!!

- mode of final consumption

DHS & MB V2.1 2011

principle step 3 critical limits benchmarks2
Principle/Step 3 - Critical Limits (benchmarks)
  • The absolute tolerance for safety.
  • A criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.
  • The boundary of safety.
  • Critical Limits must be measurable.
  • They must be validated.
  • Relates to the preventatives measures.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011



  • What are the 6 major CCP’s

for WAI students?

  • What is a Critical Control Point?
  • What is a Process Flow Chart?

DHS & MB V2.1 2011


Next week in Lesson 6

  • Monitoring Processes.
  • Food Preparation and Future Use or Consumption PFD Activity
  • (C or N) - due this lesson.
  • Calibration and thermometers:
  • including a practical demonstration / activity,
  • so bring your own thermometers with you to class.
  • Note: you need to bring your Food Standards with you next
  • week for a class activity.

DHS & MB V2.1 2011