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HISTORY OF THE BALTIC SEA REGION. Elements of collective memory. common language – mother tongue beliefs, practices, customs religion all concepts based on culture territory. perception of the Baltic Region using Huntington’s theory.

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elements of collective memory
Elements of collective memory
  • common language – mother tongue
  • beliefs, practices, customs
  • religion
  • all concepts based on culture
  • territory
perception of the baltic region using huntington s theory
perceptionof the Baltic Region using Huntington’s theory
  • As a uniform entity with a shared history and culture and a “Nordic” identification or
  • as an area of cultural clashes with different historical parameters
  • Wars were very frequent and viewed by most contemporaries as natural.
  • War was part of everyday life for many people in the Baltic sea.
  • The wars were means of gaining control of the water routs and they became a defining trait of the history of the whole region
dominating powers in the bsr
dominating powers in the BSR
  • Viking Age (800-1050)
  • Danish Empire (1150-1220)
  • The Hanseatic League (1282-1525)
  • The Teutonic Order ((1226-1410)
  • The Kalmar Union (1397-1521)
  • The Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth (1386-1795)
  • Swedish Empire or Stockholm period (1560-1721)
  • Russian dominance (1701-1917)
  • Brandenburg-Prussia-Germany power (1660-1918)
  • Third German Reich (1933-1945)
  • Soviet Russia (1922- 1990)
The very loose empire in the BSR was based upon control of the water routes
  • Establishment of a network of trade and communication in the BR
  • The most important routes of Danish Vikings led to England and Northern France; Norwegian Vikings went west to Scotland and Iceland and Swedish Vikings sailed the Baltic Sea and rivers.
  • Vikings played an important role in the establishment of the first Russian in Kiev.

Danish seamen, painted 12th century


Map showing Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) and eleventh (yellow) centuries. Areas denoted in green are those affected by frequent Viking incursions but with little or no Scandinavian settlement

hanseatic league
Hanseatic League
  • 14th-15th centuries –height of its dominance
  • Trade network of more than 100 cities and towns
  • Merchants in North German cities organized themselves with intention of controlling trade in the region
  • It excluded others from profitable bussines by controlling ports and shiproutes
  • Main trade goods : furs, grain, salt, wax, flax and hops
  • German influence of the Hanseatic League
the kalmar union 1397 1523
The Kalmar Union (1397 -1523)
  • Formed by Denmark, Sweden (including Finland) and Norway in 1397
  • One of the largest alliance in the BR mostly under Danish leadership
  • Personal union
  • the union's breakup in 1523 when Gustav Vasa became king of Sweden.
the teutonic order
The Teutonic Order
  • they were to bring Christianization into the region
  • Once established in Prussia, the Order became involved in campaigns against its neighbours, theKingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the novograd Republic
  • the Order had a strong urban economy, hired many mercenaries, and became a naval power in the Baltic Sea
  • In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunvald(Tannenberg)
the lithuanian polish commonwealth 1386 1795
The Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth (1386-1795)
  • 1386 – personal union
  • 1569 – real union – Union of Lublin
  • The system was a precursor of the modern concepts of broader democracy and constitutional monarchy as well as federation.
  • The two comprising states of the Commonwealth's were formally equal, although in reality Poland was a dominant partner in the union.
  • While the Commonwealth's first decades were a golden age for both Poland and Lithuania, the second century was marked by military defeats
  • The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, Russia, and vassals of the Ottoman Empire, and at times launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors.
the swedish empire 1560 1721
The Swedish Empire (1560-1721)
  • Based on wars with regional states: Denmark, Russia, Poland and Germany
  • Thirty Years War (1618-1648) began as a religious war and ended as a European power struggle between a large number of states
  • Sweden integrated new territories
  • In 15th, 16th and 17th century Poland aspired to become a leading sea power in the Baltic Region.
  • The struggle of Sweden and Poland in the seventeenth century was part of the overall competition for hegemony in the Baltic Region
  • Sweden at the height of its territorial expansion, following the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The light orange-coloured area shows territory lost since that time
russia empire 1701 1917
Russia Empire (1701-1917)
  • Expansion towards the Baltic Sea led by Tsar Peter I
  • 1703 St Petersburg foundation as a capital of Russia
  • After the Great Northern War Russia obtained Estonia and Livonia from Sweden
  • After agreement with Prussia Poland was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria
  • The Viena Treaty after the Napoleonic Wars confirmed Russian control over these areas