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Plant Growth

Plant Growth

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Plant Growth

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Plant Growth Way too much information for a single presentation…

  2. Plant Growth Outline • Indeterminate growth • Determinate growth • Plant Hormones • Shoot apical meristem (and shoot tip), hormones • Root apical meristem (and root tip), hormones • Lateral Buds / Nodes • Cambium ring/Secondary growth

  3. Two types of growth Indeterminate and Determinate

  4. Indeterminate Growth • Animals = maximum size & shape • Plants = no maximum size or shape • Able to keep growing all their lives • Limited by resources

  5. Indeterminate Growth • If injured, plants can grow more: • Branches • Leaves • Roots • Being bigger means being more susceptible to: • Disease • Pests • Weather & Gravity

  6. Determinate Growth • Maximum size and shape • Certain parts of the plant have determinate growth: • Leaves • Flowers • Fruit • Cannot heal/fix these when injured

  7. Indeterminate vs. Determinate Growth

  8. Hormones All growth is influenced by hormones

  9. Hormones Influence Growth • Auxin • Associated with (root) growth • Cell elongation • Keeps leaves from dropping • Apical meristem (not lateral buds)

  10. Hormones Influence Growth • Cytokinin • Associated with (stem) growth • Cell division • Lateral bud growth

  11. Hormones Influence Growth • Ethylene • Gas that encourages fruiting/ripening

  12. Hormones Influence Growth • Abscisic Acid • Shoot dormancy

  13. Hormones Influence Growth • Gibberellic Acid • Stem elongation and division

  14. Meristems The tips of the root and the shoot

  15. Shoot Apical Meristem • At the tip of the shoot • Growing tip can turn into any type of tissue • Hormone-controlled • Makes hormones that keep lateral buds from growing

  16. Shoot Tip Anatomy • Cell Division • Elongation • Differentiation • Dermal tissue • Ground tissue • Vascular tissue

  17. Getting plants to fill out…

  18. Root Apical Meristem • At the tip of the root • Growing tip can turn into any type of tissue • Hormone-controlled

  19. Root Tip Anatomy • Root Cap (protection) • Cell Division • Elongation • Differentiation • Dermal tissue • Ground tissue • Vascular tissue

  20. Growth is Hormone Controlled

  21. Growth is Hormone Controlled Auxin • What’s in the rooting powder we use in the greenhouse? • Auxin • Cytokinin Cytokinin

  22. Growth isHormone-Controlled

  23. Lateral Bud/Nodes • Next to leaf • Could become meristem • Hormone-Controlled

  24. Lateral Bud/Node

  25. Secondary Growth Plants getting wider

  26. Secondary Growth • Stems getting fatter • Woody tissue • Only some plants can do this!

  27. Scattered in the stem In a ring in the stem Vascular Bundles

  28. If the stem gets fatter… • It needs more xylem and phloem to support the new tissue • Vascular Bundles in a RING only!

  29. Vascular CambiumAlso called the Lateral Meristem • Between the Xylem and Phloem • Xylem is ALWAYS on the inside • Phloem is ALWAYS on the outside

  30. Secondary Growth • Cambium produces more xylem on the inside (DEAD thick walled-cells) • More phloem on the outside (slightly alive) • Tree bark is actually old, dead PHLOEM • Neato!

  31. Tree rings • In the spring/summer cambium makes big cells since it is growing fast • In the fall cambium makes smaller cells since it is growing slowly • Change in cell size throughout time is seen as a ring…

  32. Tree rings

  33. Size of Rings • You can tell the climate of an area using tree rings… • “Good” years are really wide because the tree grew fast in the spring and summer. • When plants grow at a steady rate all year there are NO TREE RINGS!

  34. Plant Growth Outline • Indeterminate growth • Determinate growth • Plant Hormones • Shoot apical meristem (and shoot tip), hormones • Root apical meristem (and root tip), hormones • Lateral Buds / Nodes • Cambium ring/Secondary growth

  35. The End