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Plant Growth. Way too much information for a single presentation…. Plant Growth Outline. Indeterminate growth Determinate growth Plant Hormones Shoot apical meristem (and shoot tip), hormones Root apical meristem (and root tip), hormones Lateral Buds / Nodes

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plant growth

Plant Growth

Way too much information

for a single presentation…

plant growth outline
Plant Growth Outline
  • Indeterminate growth
  • Determinate growth
  • Plant Hormones
  • Shoot apical meristem (and shoot tip), hormones
  • Root apical meristem (and root tip), hormones
  • Lateral Buds / Nodes
  • Cambium ring/Secondary growth
two types of growth

Two types of growth

Indeterminate and Determinate

indeterminate growth
Indeterminate Growth
  • Animals = maximum size & shape
  • Plants = no maximum size or shape
  • Able to keep growing all their lives
  • Limited by resources
indeterminate growth1
Indeterminate Growth
  • If injured, plants can grow more:
    • Branches
    • Leaves
    • Roots
  • Being bigger means being more susceptible to:
    • Disease
    • Pests
    • Weather & Gravity
determinate growth
Determinate Growth
  • Maximum size and shape
  • Certain parts of the plant have determinate growth:
    • Leaves
    • Flowers
    • Fruit
  • Cannot heal/fix these when injured
hormones

Hormones

All growth is influenced by hormones

hormones influence growth
Hormones Influence Growth
  • Auxin
    • Associated with (root) growth
    • Cell elongation
    • Keeps leaves from dropping
    • Apical meristem (not lateral buds)
hormones influence growth1
Hormones Influence Growth
  • Cytokinin
    • Associated with (stem) growth
    • Cell division
    • Lateral bud growth
hormones influence growth2
Hormones Influence Growth
  • Ethylene
    • Gas that encourages fruiting/ripening
hormones influence growth3
Hormones Influence Growth
  • Abscisic Acid
    • Shoot dormancy
hormones influence growth4
Hormones Influence Growth
  • Gibberellic Acid
    • Stem elongation and division
meristems

Meristems

The tips of the root and the shoot

shoot apical meristem
Shoot Apical Meristem
  • At the tip of the shoot
  • Growing tip can turn into any type of tissue
  • Hormone-controlled
  • Makes hormones that keep lateral buds from growing
shoot tip anatomy
Shoot Tip Anatomy
  • Cell Division
  • Elongation
  • Differentiation
    • Dermal tissue
    • Ground tissue
    • Vascular tissue
root apical meristem
Root Apical Meristem
  • At the tip of the root
  • Growing tip can turn into any type of tissue
  • Hormone-controlled
root tip anatomy
Root Tip Anatomy
  • Root Cap (protection)
  • Cell Division
  • Elongation
  • Differentiation
    • Dermal tissue
    • Ground tissue
    • Vascular tissue
growth is hormone controlled1
Growth is Hormone Controlled

Auxin

  • What’s in the rooting powder we use in the greenhouse?
    • Auxin
    • Cytokinin

Cytokinin

lateral bud nodes
Lateral Bud/Nodes
  • Next to leaf
  • Could become meristem
  • Hormone-Controlled
secondary growth

Secondary Growth

Plants getting wider

secondary growth1
Secondary Growth
  • Stems getting fatter
    • Woody tissue
  • Only some plants can do this!
if the stem gets fatter
If the stem gets fatter…
  • It needs more xylem and phloem to support the new tissue
  • Vascular Bundles in a RING only!
vascular cambium also called the lateral meristem
Vascular CambiumAlso called the Lateral Meristem
  • Between the Xylem and Phloem
  • Xylem is ALWAYS on the inside
  • Phloem is ALWAYS on the outside
secondary growth2
Secondary Growth
  • Cambium produces more xylem on the inside (DEAD thick walled-cells)
  • More phloem on the outside (slightly alive)
  • Tree bark is actually old, dead PHLOEM
  • Neato!
tree rings
Tree rings
  • In the spring/summer cambium makes big cells since it is growing fast
  • In the fall cambium makes smaller cells since it is growing slowly
  • Change in cell size throughout time is seen as a ring…
size of rings
Size of Rings
  • You can tell the climate of an area using tree rings…
  • “Good” years are really wide because the tree grew fast in the spring and summer.
  • When plants grow at a steady rate all year there are NO TREE RINGS!
plant growth outline1
Plant Growth Outline
  • Indeterminate growth
  • Determinate growth
  • Plant Hormones
  • Shoot apical meristem (and shoot tip), hormones
  • Root apical meristem (and root tip), hormones
  • Lateral Buds / Nodes
  • Cambium ring/Secondary growth