Exploring American History Unit X – Post War America. Chapter 27 – Section 2 War in Korea and New Red Scare. War in Korea and a New Red Scare. The Big Idea During the Cold War, the U.S. government confronted communism globally and within the United States. Main Ideas
Chapter 27 – Section 2War in Korea and New Red Scare
After World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts.
The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38th parallel.
The Soviet Union established a communist government in North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il Sung.
In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic system. The Republic of Korea was led by president Syngman Rhee.
South Korea was where the United States had to take a stand against Communist aggression.
Truman ordered American naval and air forces to support Korean ground troops.
Truman asked the United Nations to approve the use of force to stop the North Korean invasion.
Role of the United Nations
The UN Security Council supported the use of force in Korea.
Truman sent ground troops to Korea.
The troops sent to Korea were to be a United Nations force.
Instead of calling this a war, the whole effort was referred to as a UN police action.The Start of the Korean War
on the Run
In July 1951 peace talks began.
One major obstacle was the location of the boundary between the Koreas.
Meanwhile battles such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge continued, inflicting heavy casualties on both sides.
In October 1951 peace talks stalled over prisoners of war.
Negotiators in Panmunjomcontinued to argue over the details of a peace agreement throughout 1952.
Events of 1953
In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower—who promised to end the war—was elected president.
Fighting remained deadly—in the final two months of the war, UN forces lost 57,000 men and the Communists lost 100,000.
An armistice agreement was finally reached on July 27, 1953.
The Korean War left the map of Korea looking much as it had in 1950.
The human costs were huge.Fighting Ends in Korea
Cold War fears led to a new Red Scare in the late 1940s and 1950s.
A Congressional committee known as the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was in charge of investigating Communist influence in America.
would not answer questions or refused to reveal names.
blacklisted, or denied work.
Explosive spy cases also fed fears that Communists were at work in the United States.
As you approach the memorial, the first things you see are the nineteen soldiers on patrol heading up hill. The use of Juniper bushes in the field is to show the rugged terrain they met. Veterans who visit the memorial view the granite slabs, located in front of each soldier, as obstacles that American soldiers had to overcome. A low granite slab does not do justice to the many obstacles that they had to overcome. The ponchos that each is wearing can only give you a hint as to the miserable weather they faced. The soldiers at the front of the patrol represent the first soldiers sent to the Korean peninsula. Many of the first soldiers were ill equipped and ill trained yet they persevered. American soldiers faced foul weather, rugged terrain, poor equipment, not to mention 54 divisions of communist Chinese soldiers but in the end they were able to overcome all these obstacles.
The soldiers represent a unit on patrol. There is much to see in the field, most of which is not readily apparent to the average visitor. The original design of the memorial was to have 38 statues to represent the 38th parallel. Most of the fighting occurred along this line but due to space limitations the number of statues had to be cut in half.
The highly polished surface of the wall of faces reflects all nineteen soldiers producing a total thirty-eight figures. It is not just the Army represented in the field. All four branches of the United States Military have representatives.