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Damage and Residual Life Prediction of Vehicle Structures

Damage and Residual Life Prediction of Vehicle Structures

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Damage and Residual Life Prediction of Vehicle Structures

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  1. Damage and Residual Life Prediction of Vehicle Structures Chi L. Chow Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Michigan-Dearborn

  2. Table of Contents • Introduction • Theory of Damage Mechanics • Example Projects i) Bumper Damage under multiple Impact Loading ii) Crashworthiness of High Strain Rate Plastics iii) Fatigue Damage of Strain-Rate and Temperature Dependent Solder Alloys iv) Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) of Strain Rate Dependent Metals

  3. 1. Introduction Damages in a vehicle structure are caused by material degradation due to initiation, growth and coalescence of mirco-cracks/voids in a ‘real-life’ material element from monotonic, cyclic/fatigue, thermo-mechanical loading or dynamic/explosive impact loading.

  4. Micro-Meso-Macro scales

  5. ‘Real-Life’ Materials

  6. ‘Real-Life’ Materials

  7. Micro-defects - Inclusions

  8. Macro-Crack Formation

  9. Fracture/Rupture Process • Before Initial Subsequent Final • Loading Loading Loading Loading

  10. Damage Mechanics The theory of damage mechanics takes into account the process of material degradation due to the initiation, growth and coalescence of micro-cracks/voids in a ‘real-life’ material element under monotonic or cyclic or impact or thermo-mechanical loading

  11. Fracture/Rupture Criteria A valid material failure criterion must therefore take into account the process of progressive material degradation/damage under either static or dynamic/fatigue loading. Unfortunately, all conventional failure criteria including fracture mechanics ignore the process and thus unrealistic and unreliable.

  12. P P Rupture Criterion - Conventional For Smooth Specimen (with/without notches) • Static loading • Stress, strain or energy-based criteria • Fatigue loading • S-N curve (Due to Wohler in 1858) for constant amplitude loading • Miner’s rule for variable amplitude loading • Rainfall counting method for ‘real life’ fatigue loading

  13. P crack P Rupture Criterion – Conventional For Cracked Specimen • Static loading • Fracture Mechanics • Fatigue loading • Paris Law • Others based on G, J

  14. Rupture Criterion – Damage Mechanics A material element is failed when cumulative damage reaches its critical value. Unified criterion for different conditions: • Smooth and cracked specimen • Static and fatigue loading • Crack initiation and propagation

  15. Major Advantages • Ability to quantify material damage and predict residual life after impact loading • Capable of providing a unified rupture criteria for macro-crack initiation or propagation for either brittle and ductile fracture. This includes fatigue damage, localized necking, multi-phase composite failure, etc

  16. Past Project: Crash Mechanics • Bumper under Multiple Impact Loading • Crashworthiness of High Strain Rate Plastics • Head Impact Mechanics • Design of Seat Impact • Knee Bolster Design Optimization under Impact

  17. Past Projects: Electronic Packaging • Fatigue Damage of Strain-Rate and Temperature dependent Solder Alloys • Scale Effect of Solder Joints • Micro-structural Evolution of Solders

  18. Past Projects: Sheet Metal Formability • Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) for Strain Rate Dependent Metals • Formability of Tailor-Welded Blanks of Aluminum, Steels and Titanium • FLD of Warm and Hot Forming • FLD of Multiple Stamping Processes • Warm and Hot Magnesium Tube Hydroforming

  19. Past Projects: Fatigue and Fracture • Failure Analysis of Rubber-like Materials • Thermo-mechanical Fatigue of Engine Block Cracking • Fractures in Composite Structures • Fracture in Aluminum Weld Components • Mechanics of Fracture in Tires

  20. 2. Theory of Damage Mechanics

  21. n A  Definition of scalar damage variable where A0 = original surface area (with defects); A = surface area excluding defects

  22. Damage-coupled Elasticity • True stress was replaced by effective stress • Based on strain equivalent principle • Based on energy equivalent principle • Damage evolution equation

  23. Relationship Between Scalar Damage Variable and Young’s Modulus Undamaged material Damaged Material or

  24. Effective Young’s Modulus: an example

  25. Tensor Damage Variable Relationship between Effective stress and Cauchy Stress  where M(D) is damage effect tensor. For isotropic damage, D becomes a scale damage variable. M(D) then becomes I is a unit tensor .

  26. Damage Effect Tensor For multi-axial stress state, damage effect tensor is where D and  are scalar damage variables

  27. Free Energy Equivalence The free energy for a damaged material may be expressed in a form similar to that for a material without damage except that all stresses are replaced by their corresponding effective stresses. • Without damage • With damage

  28. Damage-Coupled Elastic Equation where C is effective/damage stiffness matrix and

  29. Damage Energy Release Rate The conjugates of the damage variables, known as damage energy release rate, are defined as

  30. Formulation of [A] Matrix

  31. Isotropic Strain Hardening

  32. Kinematic Strain Hardening

  33. Damage-Coupled Yield Surface where is defined as and and R(p) are yield stress and strain hardening threshold. p is overall effective plastic strain.

  34. Damage-Coupled Plastic Equation where S is the true stress deviator tensor, λ is a Lagrange multiplier.

  35. Damage and Yield Surfaces

  36. 2 plastic damage surface no damage 1 fatigue damage surface Fatigue and Plastic Damage Surfaces

  37. Plastic Damage surface The expanding plastic damage surface is expressed in terms of the damage energy release rates and as

  38. Plastic Damage Evolution Equations where dwp is overall plastic damage increment, λpd is the Lagrange multiplier

  39. Fatigue Damage Fatigue damage surface Fatigue damage evolution equations where dwf is overall fatigue damage increment, λfd is a Lagrange multiplier

  40. Total Damage Total damage is the summation of fatigue damage and plastic damage

  41. Damage Failure Criterion A material element is said to have rupture when the total cumulative overall damage (w) has reached the measured critical value (wc) of the material under investigation.

  42. Finite Element Analysis The damage coupled material model has been implemented in ABAQUS and LS-DYNA through UMAT and user specified material subroutine respectively. It has also been programmed in FCRASH of Ford.

  43. UMAT: Variables to be defined • Jacobian Matrix of the material model It must be defined accurately if rapid convergence is to be achieved. However, an incorrect definition only affects the convergence rate. The results (if obtained) are unaffected. • Stress tensor • Elastic and plastic strain tensor • Damage variables defined as the solution-dependent state variables

  44. Damage-Coupled Material Model FEA Damage Index Damage Analysis Approach

  45. 3. Example Projects

  46. Bumper Damage under Multiple Impact Loading Objectives • To evaluate crashworthiness of bumpers under multiple low speed impact. • To quantify accumulative damages in two bumpers, one made of SAE 950 and another, martensitic sheet steel. • To predict overall damages sustained in the bumpers and their potential sites of failure using FCRASH programmed with the damage model and then compare the simulation results with those of drop-weight testing.

  47. Testing Procedure for E and 

  48. Measured Young’s Modulus E

  49. Damage Variables D and µ From the equations of E and  in an earlier slide, we can evaluate D and μ with measured data (E0, E, 0, ) as and

  50. Critical Damage Critical overall damage for SAE 950 steel was measured to be wc=0.112 and martinsite sheet steel, wc=0.04.