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Bits and Bytes. WeeSan Lee weesan@cs.ucr.edu. Roadmap. Basic Terminology Computer Components Operating Systems Conclusion References. 8. 8. 4. 4. 2. 2. 1. 1. Basic Terminology. Bits The smallest unit of information in a computer 0 or 1 Bytes 8 bits

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bits and bytes

Bits and Bytes

WeeSan Lee weesan@cs.ucr.edu

roadmap
Roadmap
  • Basic Terminology
  • Computer Components
  • Operating Systems
  • Conclusion
  • References
basic terminology

8

8

4

4

2

2

1

1

Basic Terminology
  • Bits
    • The smallest unit of information in a computer
    • 0 or 1
  • Bytes
    • 8 bits
    • Eg. 0100 10102 = 4A16 = 74 = ‘J’

0100 1010

= 4A

A

4

basic terminology cont
Basic Terminology (cont)
  • KB
    • Kilo Bytes
    • Eg. 1 KB = 1,024 Bytes ≈ 1,000 Bytes
  • MB
    • Mega Bytes
    • Eg. 1 MB = 1,048,576 ≈ 1,000,000 Bytes
  • GB
    • Giga Bytes
    • Eg. 1 GB = 1,073,741,824 ≈ 1,000,000,000 Bytes
  • TB
    • Tera Bytes
    • Eg. 1 TB = 1000 GB
computer
Computer

Floppy Drive

Optical Drive

Hard Drive

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Stripped-computer-case.JPG

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_supply_unit

computer cont
Computer (cont)
  • PSU (Power Supply Unit)
    • Power up the computer
  • HDD (Hard Disk Drive)
    • A mass-storage for the computer
    • Size: 3.5” for desktop, 2.5” for laptop
    • Speed: 5400/7200 RPM
    • Type: ATA100/133 vs. SATA
    • Capacity: 8/17/32/60/80/120/160/250/500GB
    • 500GB = ½TB
computer cont1
Computer (cont)
  • FDD (Floppy Disk Drive)
    • Format: 5¼ ” or 3.5”
    • Capacity: 1.2M or 1.4M
  • Optical Drive
    • CDROM/CD-RW for CD
    • DVDROM/DVD-RW for DVD
computer cont2
Computer (cont)
  • Motherboard (MOBO)
    • Primary circuit board of the computer
    • Form factor: ATX/MicroATX/SFF
    • Newest form factor: HumpATX?
      • http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~weesan/hacks/hump_atx.html
computer cont3
Computer (cont)

Floppy Disk Controller

IDE Controller

SATA Controller

Power Connector

CPU socket

Back plane I/O

computer cont4
Computer (cont)
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit or processor)
    • The brain of the computer
    • Performs computation, data processing, etc

http://www.intel.com/products/i/products/pentium4.jpg

http://www.global-b2b-network.com/direct/dbimage/50086366/CPU_Cooler.jpg

computer cont5
Computer (cont)
  • Brand
    • Intel
      • 286/386/486, Pentium III/4, Xeon, Dual-Core, Core 2 Solo/Duo
    • AMD
      • K6/2, K7, Sempron, Athlon, Opteron
  • Clock speed
    • 66/100/200/300/450/600/800MHz
    • 1.2/1.4/1.6/1.83/2.0/3.0/3.2GHz
  • Overclocking
    • Forces a CPU to run faster than it was designed for
computer cont6
Computer (cont)
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • A place that a program and data are kept so that they are accessible by the CPU
    • Types: SDRAM/DDR/DDR2/SO-DIMM
    • Name
      • DDR-200/266/333/400
      • DDR2-400/533/667/800
    • Capacity
      • 32/64/128/256/512MB
      • 1/2/4GB
computer cont7
Computer (cont)
  • Expansion slots
    • A place that expansion cards can be inserted to increase the functionality of the computer
    • Eg. Modem card, audio card, video card, Ethernet card, etc.
    • Type
      • ISA
      • PCI
      • AGP
      • PCI Express
computer cont8
Computer (cont)
  • Back panel I/O

Ethernet Port

Firewire Port

Mouse

Printer Port

Audio ports

VGA port

USB port

Keyboard

Serial Port

operating systems
Operating Systems
  • The software between the HW and apps
  • Eg.
    • Windows 95/98/2000/NT/ME/XP/Vista
    • Mac OS X (10.3/10.4)
    • Linux Distribution: Slackware/Redhat/Suse/Debian/Ubuntu/CentOS
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Bits & Bytes
  • Computer
    • PSU
    • MOBO
    • CPU
    • RAM
    • HDD/FDD/Optical Drive
references
References
  • Internet Effectively (Ch 1-2)
  • http://computer.howstuffworks.com/pc.htm
    • ~ 3 mins of video
  • Motherboard
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ASRock_K7VT4A_Pro_Mainboard_Labeled_English.png
homework
Homework
  • Read RFC2555
    • ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc2555.txt
  • List all the names of the people appeared in the RFC
  • Submit the list via Moodle by next Wed (Oct 3) @ 23:55pm
lab 1
Lab 1
  • Get your CS username and password
  • Get familiar with Moodle
    • Update your profile
    • Post a message to the forum
    • Submit HW1
  • Create a screendump
  • Form a team
    • 4-5 members
    • Pick a cool team name
    • Pick a team leader
    • Post your team info. to the “Form a Team” forum