Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus an...
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Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”). Levison, H., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., & Tsiganis, K. Icarus, Accepted. Nathan Kaib 5/16/08. Outline. Description of Kuiper Belt

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Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

Levison, H., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., & Tsiganis, K.

Icarus, Accepted

Nathan Kaib

5/16/08


Outline
Outline Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Outline1
Outline Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Missing Mass: KB only contains 0.01 – 0.1 Earth masses

  • Need 2-3 orders of magnitude more mass to accrete 100-1000 km bodies


Properties of the kuiper belt
Properties of the Kuiper Belt Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • 10 – 50% of objects found in resonances with Neptune

  • Inclinations extend up to ~40o


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Contains large population of excited orbits that do not pass near planets now

    • - Scattered Disk


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Contains double peaked inclination distribution:

    • “Hot” population

    • “Cold” population

Hot

Cold


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Hot and Cold populations have different properties

Hot

Bluer, Larger

Redder, Smaller

Cold


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Cold, low e population has sharp cutoff at 1:2 resonance with Neptune


Outline2
Outline Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Planetesimal scattering
Planetesimal Scattering Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)


Outer planet migration
Outer Planet Migration Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

N

  • Nep, Ura, and Sat much more likely to scatter bodies in than eject them

  • Jupiter’s energy kicks are powerful enough to eject most bodies

J

U

S


Outer planet migration1
Outer Planet Migration Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

Neptune, Uranus, and Saturn migrate outwards and Jupiter moves in to conserve angular momentum


Current planet configuration
Current Planet Configuration Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

1:2 MMR

Saturn currently is ~1.3 AU beyond the 1:2 MMR with Jupiter


The nice model
The Nice Model Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

1:2 MMR

~35 AU

If there were 10’s of Earth masses of material beyond Neptune originally, then Saturn must have crossed the 1:2 MMR with Jupiter


Nathan kaib 5 16 08


Nice model can explain
Nice Model Can Explain… chaotic

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain1
Nice Model Can Explain… chaotic

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain2
Nice Model Can Explain… chaotic

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain3
Nice Model Can Explain… chaotic

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain4
Nice Model Can Explain… chaotic

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Outline3
Outline chaotic

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Simulations
Simulations chaotic

  • Start planets at last scattering between Uranus and Neptune

  • Surround Neptune’s orbit with torus of 60,000 test particles extending to 34 AU

  • Vary Neptune’s starting place and e-damping in sims


Simulations1
Simulations chaotic


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed chaotic

Simulated





Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed chaotic

Simulated




Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed chaotic

Simulated






Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Hot chaotic

Cold




Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed chaotic

Simulated



Conclusions
Conclusions chaotic

  • Nice Model reproduces more properties of Kuiper Belt than any other previous scenario

  • Eccentricities of cold belt too high by a factor of 2

  • May be due to unaccounted for physics such as collisional damping