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The Internet and the Web. History of Internet. recall: the Internet is a vast, international network of computers the Internet traces its roots back to the early 1960s MIT professor J.C.R. Licklider published a series of articles describing a “Galactic Network” of communicating computers

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history of internet
History of Internet
  • recall: the Internet is a vast, international network of computers
  • the Internet traces its roots back to the early 1960s
    • MIT professor J.C.R. Licklider published a series of articles describing a “Galactic Network” of communicating computers
    • in 1962, Licklider became head of computer research at the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)
    • in 1967, Licklider hired Larry Roberts to design and implement his vision of a Galactic Network
  • the ARPANet (precursor to the Internet) became a reality in 1969
    • it connected computers at four universities: UCLA, UCSB, SRI, and Utah
    • it employed dedicated cables, buried underground

the data transfer rate was 56K bits/sec, roughly same as dial-up services today

    • the ARPANet demonstrated that researchers at different sites could communicate, share data, and run software remotely
  • the ARPANet was intended to connect only military installations and universities participating in government projects
    • by 1971, 18 sites were connected; most used Interface Message Processors (IMPs) which allowed up to 4 terminal connections at the site
    • sites labeled with a T utilized Terminal Interface Processors (TIPs), which allowed up to 64 terminal connections at the site
arpanet growth
ARPANet Growth
  • by 1980, close to 100 sites were connected to the ARPANet
    • satellite connections provided links to select cities outside the continental U.S.
  • in the early 1980s, the ARPANet experienced an astounding growth spurt
    • applications such as email, newsgroups, and remote logins were attractive to all colleges and universities
    • by 1984, the ARPANet encompassed more than 1,000 sites
  • to accommodate further growth, the National Science Foundation (NSF) became involved with the ARPANet in 1984
    • NSF funded the construction of high-speed transmission lines that would form the backbone of the expanding network
  • the term “Internet” was coined in recognition of the similarities between the NSFNet and the interstate highway system
    • backbone connections provided fast communications between principal destinations, analogous to interstate highways
    • connected to the backbone were slower transmission lines that linked secondary destinations, analogous to state highways
    • local connections were required to reach individual computers, analogous to city and neighborhood roads
  • note: Al Gore did not INVENT the Internet, nor did he ever claim to
    • he sponsored legislation in the late 1980s to support growth and expand access
  • recognizing that continued growth would require significant funding and research, the government decided in the mid 90s to privatize the Internet
    • control of the network’s hardware was turned over to telecommunications companies and research organizations (e.g., MCI WorldCom, GTE, Sprint)
    • research and design are administered by the Internet Society
internet society
Internet Society
  • Internet Society is an international nonprofit organization (founded in 1992)
    • it maintains and enforces standards, ensuring that all computers on the Internet are able to communicate with each other
    • it also organizes committees that propose and approve new Internet-related technologies and software
internet growth
Internet Growth
  • according to the Internet Software Consortium, the Internet has more than doubled in size every 1 or 2 years
    • will this trend continue?
distributed networks
Distributed Networks
  • the design of the ARPANet was influenced by the ideas of Paul Baran, a researcher at the RAND Institute
    • Baran proposed 2 key ideas: distributed network and packet-switching
  • recall: the ARPANet was funded by the Dept of Defense for communications
    • as such, it needed to be resistant to attack or mechanical failure
packet switching
Packet Switching
  • in a packet-switching network, messages to be sent over the network are first broken into small pieces known as packets
    • these packets are sent independently to their final destination
advantages of packets
Advantages of Packets
  • sending information in smaller units increases the efficient use of connections
    • large messages can't monopolize the connection
    • analogy: limiting call lengths at a pay phone to limit waiting
  • transmitting packets independently allows the network to react to failures or network congestion
    • routers (special-purpose computers that direct the flow of messages) can recognize failures or congestion and reroute the packet around trouble areas
  • breaking the message into packets can improve reliability
    • since the packets are transmitted independently, it is likely that at least part of the message will arrive (even if some failures occur within the network)
    • software at the destination can recognize which packets are missing and request retransmission
protocols and addresses
Protocols and Addresses
  • the Internet allows different types of computers from around the world to communicate
    • this is possible because the computing community agreed upon common protocols (sets of rules that describe how communication takes place)
    • the two central protocols that control Internet communication are:
      • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
      • Internet Protocol (IP)
  • these protocols rely on each computer having a unique identifier (known as an IP address)
    • analogy: street address + zip code provide unique address for your house/dorm

using this address, anyone in the world can send you a letter

    • an IP address is a number, written as a dotted sequence such as
    • each computer is assigned an IP address by its Internet Service Provider (ISP)
    • some ISPs (e.g., AOL, most colleges) maintain a pool of IP addresses and assign them dynamically to computers each time they connect
tcp ip
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • controls the method by which messages are broken down into packets and then reassembled when they reach their final destination
  • Internet Protocol (IP)
    • concerned with labeling the packets for delivery and controlling the packets’ paths from sender to recipient
routers and dns
Routers and DNS
  • the Internet relies on special purpose computers in the network
    • routers are computers that receive packets, access the routing information, and pass the packets on toward their destination
    • domain name servers are computers that store mappings between domain names and IP addresses
      • domain names are hierarchical names for computers (e.g.,

they are much easier to remember and type than IP addresses

      • domain name servers translate the names into their corresponding IP addresses
history of the web
History of the Web
  • the World Wide Web is a multimedia environment in which documents can be
  • seamlessly linked over the Internet
    • proposed by Tim Berners-Lee at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in 1989
    • designed to facilitate sharing information among researchers located all over Europe and using different types of computers and software
  • Berners-Lee's design of the Web integrated two key ideas
    • hypertext (documents with interlinked text and media)
      • Web pages can contain images and links to other pages
    • the distributed nature of the Internet
      • pages can be stored on machines all across the Internet, known as Web servers
      • logical connections between pages are independent of physical locations
web timeline
Web Timeline
  • 1990: Berners-Lee produced working prototypes of a Web server and browser
  • 1991: Berners-Lee made his software available for free over the Internet
  • 1993: Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina of the University of Illinois’ National Center for Supercomputing Association (NCSA), wrote the first graphical browser: Mosaic
    • Mosaic integrated text, image & links, made browsing more intuitive
  • 1994: Andreesen founded Netscape, which marketed the Netscape Navigator
  • 1995: Microsoft released Internet Explorer  the browser wars begin!
  • 1999: Internet Explorer becomes the most popular browser (~90% of market in 2002)

in 2002, Google indexed more than 3 billion Web pages

in 2005, Google claims more than 8 billion pages

how the web works
How the Web Works
  • like Internet communications, the Web relies on protocols to ensure that pages are accessible to any computer
    • HyperText Markup Language (HTML) defines the form of Web page content
    • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) defines how messages exchanged between browsers and servers are formatted
      • the prefix http:// in a URL specifies that the HTTP protocol is to be used in communicating with the server
      • the prefix is NOT used for local file access since no server communication is necessary
  • for efficiency reasons, browsers will sometimes cache pages/images
    • to avoid redundant downloads, the browser will store a copy of a page/image on the hard drive (along with a time stamp)
    • the next time the page/image is requested, it will first check the cache
      • if a copy is found, it sends a conditional request to the server
        • essentially: "send this page/image only if it has been changed since the timestamp"
        • if the server copy has not changed, the server sends back a brief message and the browser simply uses the cached copy