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Introduction to Digital Photography. Glossary, Definitions, and Digital Concepts Instructor: David King. Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts. Digital Still Photography was developed from Video Electronic Capture.

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Introduction to digital photography

Introduction toDigital Photography

Glossary, Definitions, and Digital Concepts

Instructor: David King


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Digital Still Photography was developed from Video Electronic Capture

  • The first Still Cameras Captured an NTSC Video “Frame”

  • An NTSC Video frame is 1/30 of a second. (NTSC Video plays at 30 frames per second.)

  • A ‘FRAME’ is made up of two interlaced ‘FIELDS’ to create the full image. Each field is 1/60 of a second.

  • Each field contains every other line of pixels on a screen.

  • There are about 500 lines per screen in normal NTSC Video. Filtering can raise this to about 530. It is approximately equivalent to a 640 x 480 pixel image at 72 pixels per inch. (‘Hi Def’ is approximately double that resolution).

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts1
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Digital Still Photography was developed from Video Electronic Capture

  • One of the first viable cameras was the Sony ‘Mavica’ ™ which used 1.44 megapixel/3.25 inch ‘floppy’ discs to store its video-based images.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts2
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • The image is captured with an imaging ‘chip’ or ‘sensor’ that converts light energy into an electrons that can be measured based on intensity.

  • There are two technologies in use to make photo imaging chips.

CCD = “Charge-Coupled Device”

CMOS = “Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor”

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts3
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Is one technology better than the other?

CCD = “Charge-Coupled Device”

Initially less costly to manufacture

More uniform readings since data goes through fewer ‘readers’

Less heat therefore less inherent signal noise

Requires additional processing chips in system and high power use

CMOS = “Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor”

Each pixel had its own reader

More circuits on chip making for less system complexity

Less power consumption and greater battery life

Higher speed

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts4
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Defining an Image chip of either type…

    • A CCD or CMOS imaging Chip has Four major characteristics. (This is the digital equivalent to film types and formats.)

1. PHYSICAL DIMENSION/SIZE: That is, how big is the chip?

Size is usually measured in millimeters (mm) or expressed in a label.

“Full Frame” = 36mm x 24mm (Size of 35mm film image)

“APS”/”DX” = 23mm x17mm – 22mm x15mm

“4/3” = 18mm x 13.5 (Olympus Only)

Point and Shoot chips can range from 8mm x 6mm and down…

Digital Backs (MF) are from 36mm x 36mm to 48mm x 48mm and up

Scanning Backs (LF) are from 125mm x 100mm and up.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts5
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Defining an Image chip of either type…

    • A CCD or CMOS imaging Chip has Four major characteristics

2. ASPECT RATIO: That is, what SHAPE is the chip?

“Full Frame” and “APS”/”DX” = 3:2 like a 35mm camera

“4/3” and most P&S (and Video) = 4:3 which is more like an 8x10 print

Square = many Digital Backs produce a square image

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts6
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Defining an Image chip of either type…

    • A CCD or CMOS imaging Chip has Four major characteristics

3. PIXEL DIMENSION: That is, how many photo sites are on the chip?

Dimension is measured in “Megapixels” (Millions of pixels)

“DSLRs” = Currently: 6 Mp to 16.7 Mp

“MF Backs” = Currently: 11 Mp to about 40 Mp

“LF Backs” = 80 to over 120 Mp

Point & Shoot = Currently 3 to 10 Mp

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts7
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Defining an Image chip of either type…

    • A CCD or CMOS imaging Chip has Four major characteristics

4. PIXEL SIZE/DENSITY: That is, how big is each photo site and how close are they to one another?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts8
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Other Major Camera/Back differences to consider…

FRAME RATE for CONTINUOUS SHOOTING: That is, how fast can you take one shot right after another?

IMAGE BUFFER: That is, how many images can be stored in the system buffer before it has to pause to empty onto the memory card?

BUILD DURABILTY: Composite, plastic, metal and how is it sealed against weather and the elements?

ERONOMICS: How easy is it to hold and shoot? How quickly can you get it into action or find all of the controls and buttons?

LENS AVAILABILITY: What lenses and of what quality are available? In the end, picture quality is all about the GLASS!

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts9
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Why is the lens so important?

    • We need to see how a chip differs from film in how it records an image

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts10
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Why is the lens so important?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts11
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Why is the lens so important?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts12
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Why is the lens so important?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts13
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Why is the lens so important?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts14
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Why is the lens so important?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts15
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Capturing an Electronic Image

  • Different cameras have different approaches to these issues. So Which is best? Or… What are the trade offs?

IT ALL DEPENDS ON

WHAT YOU ARE SHOOTING…

JUST LIKE WITH FILM!!!

We’ll address these issues in detail as the class goes on…

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts16
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution

  • A Few different kinds of resolution…

In Film we had…

Grain: A result of film speed and format size

(Grain enlarged as the print was enlarged)

In Digital we have…

PPI = Pixels Per Inch (File resolution)

(Does not change with enlargement…)

DPI = Dots Per Inch (Printer ink resolution)

LPI = Lines Per Inch (Offset reproduction resolution)

LPMM = Line Pairs Per Millimeter (Lens resolution)

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts17
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution

  • Pixel density and a file’s pixels per Inch would seem to determine how fine can be the detail recorded in a file, But it is just the start… then there is “interpolation”

Interpolation is calculating what goes between other known data.

Extrapolation is calculating what lies outside the known data.

Because a photo site only registers luminosity (the intensity of the light

striking it) interpolation is the process by which the digital camera’s

Processor determines color.

But it has a major effect on resolution.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts18
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – The “BAYER” Filter / Pattern

  • Different processors interpolate differently but for this hypothetical 12x8 (96 pixel) chip, here is one way…

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts19
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – The “BAYER” Filter / Pattern

  • Grid is divided into 4-block primary squares.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts20
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – The “BAYER” Filter / Pattern

  • The luminosity under each filter is measured and assigned. Then the next block is processed until all are completed.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts21
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – The “BAYER” Filter / Pattern

  • A primary pixel is assigned the resulting RGB value. Then the next primary pixel. Intermediate pixels discard the initial reading.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts22
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – The “BAYER” Filter / Pattern

  • Based on the primary pixels, the in-between pixels are interpolated.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts23
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – The “BAYER” Filter / Pattern

  • The averaged primary and interpolated in-between values are then sent to the memory card.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts24
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – Other approaches…

FUJI…

  • Fuji arranges their photo sites in a diamond pattern to increase horizontal resolution

  • then puts two sensors at each site; a large and small sensor to increase the dynamic range.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts25
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

Resolution versus Resolution – Other approaches…

SIGMA / FOVEON

  • Foveon was a pioneer of the non-video approach to image sensing and produced one of the very first functioning digital cameras: a Compac™ laptop with a Canon™ lens mount.

  • The Foveon™ chip used in the Sigma cameras uses three stacked RGB filters at each photosite to eliminate interpolation.

  • They claim this gives them a 3X increase in resolution over the actual pixel dimension of the chip.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts26
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

So what are you giving up to switch or go to Digital? The normal

comparisons involve these image factors…

  • Dynamic Range

  • Color Range

  • Detail

  • Tonalities

  • Image Durability

  • Cost and Time

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts27
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

DYNAMIC RANGE

This is the range of tones that can be recorded from deep black shadows

to bright white highlights.

It can be expressed…

 in terms of “stops” of exposure, or

 in terms of a Density / Gamma range as measured

on a densitometer.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts28
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

DYNAMIC RANGE

MEDIA STOPS GAMMA

Film: Color Pos. 11 2.8+/-

Film: B&W Neg 12 2.9+/-

B&W Paper 9-10 2.0

P&S Digital 8-11 <2.0-3.0

DSLR* Digital 11-14 3.4+/-

High end InkJet Print 11-13 3.0-3.2

* High end chips in Digital Backs are better

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts29
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

COLOR RANGE

No media can capture the total color range of the human eye. We “Seecolor” visually in RGB but also “feel color” psychologically.

High end DSLR is roughly equivalent to Kodak’s Kodachrome

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts30
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

DETAIL and RESOLUTION

Film is limited by the lenses and developers. It can theoretically capture

finer detail than virtually any lens can resolve because of its microscopic

grain. A single grain of VERY FINE GRAINED FILM averages

about2 microns…

However… film clumping severely cuts back on this theoretical potential

since it takes 20-40 grains to clump to reveal increments of tonality...

High end digital cameras can also capture more than most lenses

resolve though not as much more as film’s potential. A Common 6 Mp

DSLR’s photosites are about 6 microns. In practice it can resolve finer

detail than many films’ grain clumps however because each pixel can

create any tone.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts31
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

DETAIL and RESOLUTION

Of course with larger film formats the grain to image size relationship changes but it does so with larger format digital backs as well. So how do formats of film compare?

It is commonly felt in the professional world that you can easily match…

35mm with a 6 Mp DSLR

645/6x6 MF with an 8 Mp DSLR

6x7 MF with a 16 Mp DSLR

Large Format with a 20+ Mp DSLR or 4-shot digital back

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts32
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

Tonality Rendering (Distinguishing gray tones)

Film is binary: random black silver grain clumps and clear (film) or white (paper) blend to create the illusion of tonal increments.

Digital is capable of a very fine increment of tones based on the “BIT DEPTH“ of the file. This is a computer specific issue related to the number of “bits” used to define a single tone. Here is the breakdown:

Bit Depth # of Luminosity Increments # of RGB Colors

8 256 16.7 million

12 4,095 68.6 trillion

16 65,536 281 trillion

Since human vision can only distinguish about 100 increments this should be OK.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts33
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

Image Durability: How Long will a Print Last?

This is the “archival” potential of a final printed image. Answer? Ot Depends…

Image Type Potential life span under museum conditions

Type “C” Color Print 25-35 years

B&W RC Print 50-75 years (is improving with new materials)

Fuji Crystal Archive Color 85-100 years

B&W Archival Fiber 150-200 years

Normal Inkjet Dyes 5-10 years (Typical non-photo printer)

Photo Quality Dyes 35-45 years

Hybrid/Pigmented Dyes 75-100 years

Pigment Color inks 150-200 years

Carbon Pigment B&W inks 150-200 years.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts34
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

The Inevitable Comparisons with Film

Time and Cost

After the initial investment in equipment Digital is much faster and cheaper since there is no film and no processing.

However for the professional the real competitive advantage is speed

On the commercial world, Digital is the primary medium for about 95% of the work shot.

Instructor: David King [email protected]


Digital photography glossary definitions and concepts35
Digital Photography: Glossary, Definitions, and Concepts

QUESTIONS?

Instructor: David King [email protected]


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