i ndia s economic prospects prof gulshan sachdeva j nehru u delhi i ccr chair at cgg ku
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I ndia’s Economic Prospects Prof. Gulshan Sachdeva J Nehru U Delhi & I CCR Chair at CGG, KU

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I ndia’s Economic Prospects Prof. Gulshan Sachdeva J Nehru U Delhi & I CCR Chair at CGG, KU. What’s on our plate?. Introduction by Piet Sercu, FEB @ KU Leuven Reforms since early nineties have faltered Huge needs, e.g. Infrastucture (traffic, power, courts, etc ) A dministration

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what s on our plate
What’s on our plate?
  • Introduction by Piet Sercu, FEB @ KU Leuven
    • Reforms since early nineties have faltered
    • Huge needs, e.g.
      • Infrastucture (traffic, power, courts, etc)
      • Administration
      • Labour markets
    • New opportunities:
      • BJP has a clear majority,
      • PM has a promising track record
  • Main Talk by GulshanSachdeva, J Nehru U & ICCR Chair
Economic Prospects of India


Prof Dr GulshanSachdeva

ICCR India Chair, KU Leuven

Chairperson, Centre for European Studies

School of International Studies,

Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

27 October 2014

16 Indian States with a population of minimum 25 million ( 2011 census)Another 20 states/UT range between 0.6 million to 16 million
land borders coastline
Land borders, coastline


1. Bangladesh 4,053 km

2. Bhutan 605 km

3. Myanmar 1,463 km

4. China 3,380 km

5. Nepal 1,690 km

6. Pakistan 2,912 km


truly multi cultural society
Truly Multi Cultural Society
  • Multi Ethnic- All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, Negroid found in India
  • Multi Religious- Hindus 80.5 %, Muslims 13.4% Christians,2.3%, Sikhs,1.9%, Buddhists 0.8%, Jains 0.4%, others 0.7% (2001 census)
  • Multi Lingual - 22 languages have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi ( and English) are the official national language + hundreds of languages and dialects.
  • Its diversity makes it unsuitable for any other form of government but DEMOCRACY
political system
Political System
  • Democratic
  • Federal – demarcation of roles and responsibilities
  • Secular
  • Republic
  • Union Government ( President- Prime Minister heads Council of Ministers)- Supreme Court

Bicameral- LokSabha ( lower House), RajyaSabha ( Upper House)

  • State Government- (Governor- Chief Minister- High Court)
grassroots democracy
Grassroots Democracy
  • 73rd and 74th amendment of constition “
  • Panchayati Raj”
  • 600,000 villages
  • About 240,000 village panchayats
  • 6000 blocks, 500 districts
  • Towns/ municipalities ( 8000 towns)
  • 2.8 million elected representatives (1/3 women)
India is making a successful transition from an excessively inward-oriented economy to a more globally integrated economy.
  • As a result of new policies, it has become one of the fastest growing economies of the world
  • Despite serious challenges ( global slowdown, energy security, infrastructure, poverty, regional disparities, internal security) indications are that high growth may continue
  • After independence, the critique of colonialism formed the basis for the policy of “self reliance’ in India
  • The policy emphasized a state directed, inward-oriented, import substituting industrialization as an appropriate strategy for India
  • Some reforms started in the 1980s
  • Reforms triggered by macroeconomic crisis in 1991
nature of indian reforms
Nature of Indian reforms
  • Coincided with economic transformation in the former Soviet bloc from a Centrally Planned Economy to Market Economy
  • In Transition economies- Stab, Lib, Priv
  • In India- Removal of License/ Permit Raj ( removing restrictions from the private sector/ opening to outside world
economic reforms since 1991
Economic Reforms since 1991
  • External Sector Reforms

Exchange rate, Tariffs, FDI, portfolio inv

  • Internal Sector Reforms

Industrial reforms

  • removal of licensing regime, controls
  • deregulation of product prices
  • reduction in protection to SME
  • disinvestment ( privatisation)
  • labour reforms
economic reforms
Economic Reforms
  • Fiscal reforms

tax structure, fiscal prudence

  • Banking sector reforms
  • Infrastructural reforms
  • roads
  • ports,
  • telecom,
  • airports,
  • power,
  • SEZs
  • Agriculture
Growth Performance in Five Year PlansEleventh Plan ( 2007-12) Average Growth 7.9% ( Target 9%)Average 7.8% in the last ten years ending 2012
12 fyp 2012 17
12 FYP ( 2012-17)
  • The focus is on creating human, physical and institutional capabilities to achieve targeted 8.2 per cent growth in the next five years.
  • Although rapid growth in the last ten years has raised expectations, domestic and global circumstances are less favourable today.
Still, the overall aim is to bring 9 per cent growth back by the end of 12th plan.
  • As a result of these changes, India is adapting itself simultaneously to the economic globalization and to the emerging balance of power.
  • Changes in India’s internal and external economic policies also coincided with the end of the Cold War.
The strategic consequences of Indian economic performance in the last two decades are clearly evident.
  • Growth and outward orientation has helped India to forge new relationships with its neigbours in Asia and with major powers
  • India has also moved towards regional integration (SAFTA, India- ASEAN; India-Japan, Singapore; AUS, NZ, bilateral deals, negotiations are on with many partners)
india and regionalism
India and Regionalism
  • Compared to its earlier faith in global trade deals, India has also taken an aggressive approach towards regionalism.
  • The collapse of Doha development round of WTO negotiations pushed many countries including India to look for alternatives to multilateral negotiations to improve their trade positions.
  • Since 2005 India has put its proposed regional trade agreements on fast track.
In the past, India had adopted a cautious approach to regionalism, and was engaged in only a few bilateral/regional initiatives, mainly through Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) or through open regionalism.
  • In recent years, it has started concluding Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreements (CECAs) with many countries.
The CECAs cover Free Trade Agreements (with limited negative lists) in goods, services, investment and other identified areas of economic cooperation.
  • Some important signed agreements include South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA), and agreements with ASEAN, Japan, Singapore, Afghanistan, Singapore, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, MERCOSUR etc. Serious negotiations are on with the EU, GCC, IBSA, South Korea, Australia, Malaysia etc
  • Recent Focus: , connectivity, trade, economic cooperation, agriculture, social development, environment and security
  • India continues to drive major projects within SAARC such as South Asian University, SAARC Development Fund, SAARC Food Bank
india asean
  • One significant aspect of this phase of economic growth is India’s increasing economic cooperation with Southeast Asia through regional, sub-regional and bilateral engagements.
  • After years of difficult negotiations, India finally signed a free trade agreement with ASEAN in 2009.
  • Mekong-Ganga Cooperation initiative
  • Bilateral trade agreements with Thailand (2003) Singapore (2005),Malaysia (2011).
india asean connectivity
India ASEAN Connectivity
  • India’s economic exposure to ASEAN is still limited. One of the major reasons for this is physical connectivity with the region.
  • Although FTAs in trade, services and investment is central to India’s strategy, it is realized that infrastructure challenges could hamper growth in linkages.
Emerging nodes of India-ASEAN connectivity- Myanmar and Northeast India -are both weak in infrastructure.
  • At the same time, this is also an area which has difficult landscapes and infested with insurgencies.
  • The new opening in Myanmar will definitely help building connectivity further.
  • Economic development strategies within Myanmar as well as Indian Northeast could have significant impact on India-ASEAN connectivity
india eu broad based trade investment agreement negotiations since 2007
India –EU Broad based Trade & Investment Agreement ( negotiations since 2007)
  • Trade in Goods:
  • Trade in Services:.
  • Investment:
  • Public Procurement:
  • Technical Regulations: cooperation on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures (SPS).
  • Intellectual Property
  • Competition Policy:
  • Dispute settlement
  • Major issues covered in recent meetings
  • reform of global political and economic governance,
  • global economic situation,
  • the contemporary political situation (including developments in West Asia),
  • WTO and the international trading regime,
  • reform of international institutions of global governance,
  • sustainable development, terrorism,
  • food and energy security and consolidation of intra-BRICS cooperation
  • Setting up of BRICS Development Bank
  • India-China-Russia/ India Brazil South Africa (IBSA)
eurasian region
Eurasian Region
  • Traditionally very close economic and political relations with the Soviet bloc
  • After disintegration trade and economic linkages with Russia and other CIS countries has declined considerably
  • India is looking for closer linkages with the emerging Eurasian economic Union ( Rus, Belarus, Kaz)
  • Membership in SCO
  • India has a vital stake in the stability, security and economic well-being of the Gulf ( trade, energy, remittances, 6 millions Indian workers in the region, $ 145 billion trade in 2011-12)
  • In 2004, India and GCC signed framework agreement for the enhancement of trade and other economic linkages
  • Working towards India-GCC FTA
indian strategy for linking south central asia
Indian Strategy for Linking South & Central Asia
  • Provided $ 2 billion assistance to Afghanistan
  • Active Participant in the RECCA process
  • Supported The New Silk Road Strategy
  • Hosted Delhi Investment Conference on AFG ( June 2012)
  • In the Istanbul process, India leads in two CBMs viz. Commercial Opportunities CBM and Chambers of Commerce CBM.
  • Announced 12 points Connect Central Asia Policy ( 2012)
energy security
Energy Security
  • The era of high economic growth in the western world between 1945 and the first oil crisis of 1973, coincided with a period of cheap oil prices.
  • Recent years of high economic growth in countries like India and China have coincided with periods of increased oil price uncertainty.
  • India’s oil requirements for its 8-9 per cent growth every year since 2003 have been financed at increasing global oil prices.
import dependence
Import dependence
  • India imports 76% of its oil, 23% of its gas and 20% of its coal.
  • Its energy imports last year exceeded $130 billion or 26% of its import bill of $ 490 billion.
  • By the end of the 12th Plan(2017) India's energy imports could be $150-$160 billion.
indian energy security
Indian Energy Security
  • Despite fairly low per capita consumption, India is the fourth largest consumer of energy in the world after USA, China and Russia
  • It is believed that India’s energy security can be increased by
  • diversifying both energy mix and sources of energy imports; ( 2/3 oil comes from Middle-East/ Coal is likely to continue as a major source)
  • seriously perusing overseas acquisitions of energy assets; and
  • initiating domestic policy reforms to attract foreign investment as well as improving domestic production, distribution and consumption.


Coal remains the dominant source of primary energy.
  • Domestic production of coal and lignite account for two-third of total production of commercial energy in 2000–01 and is projected to be about the same in 2021–22.
  • The combined share of oil and natural gas in energy consumption was about 25% in 2011–12 and is expected to be about the same in 2021–22.
import dependence will increase
Import dependence will increase
  • Even though domestic production of energy resources is projected to increase, import dependence will continue at a high level.
  • The main area of import will be crude oil, where nearly 78 per cent of the demand will have to be met from imports by 2017
  • Import dependence for coal is also estimated to increase from 19% in 2011–12 to 22.4 per cent in 2017 and 26 % 2022.
energy diplomacy
Energy Diplomacy
  • In the last few years, energy diplomacy has also become one of the main agendas of country’s foreign and security policy.
  • India is seriously perusing nuclear energy option as well as import sources beyond the Middle-East.
  • Indo-US nuclear agreement as well as consistent engagements with the countries of Eurasia, Africa and Latin America could be seen from this perspective
  • Overall, at this stage of economic modernization, India is vulnerable due to insufficient energy resources.
demographic dividend
Demographic dividend
  • Half of India’s 1.2-billion population is under the age of 25.
  • By 2020, India will have the world’s youngest population, with a median age of 29 years, compared with a median age of 37 in China.
  • This demographic dividend could potentially give India the biggest labor force and make it the largest consumer market in the world.
Focus on Infrastructure100 smart cities/ high speed rail network($1 trillion investment in next 5 years)
india s soft power
India’s Soft Power
  • From Buddha to Bollywood to BPO
  • Democracy
  • Films/Music ( 1602 films made in 2012)
  • Development Cooperation
  • Education
  • Trade/Commerce