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Tevatron run issues with higher luminosity. 4th International Workshop on Heavy Quarkonia Vaia Papadimitriou, Fermilab BNL, June 27-30 2006. OUTLINE. Tevatron performance and projections CDF data sets and plans for higher luminosity D0 data sets and plans for higher luminosity Conclusion.

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tevatron run issues with higher luminosity
Tevatron run issues with higher luminosity

4th International Workshop on Heavy Quarkonia

Vaia Papadimitriou, Fermilab

BNL, June 27-30 2006

Vaia Papadimitriou

outline
OUTLINE
  • Tevatron performance and projections
  • CDF data sets and plans for higher luminosity
  • D0 data sets and plans for higher luminosity
  • Conclusion

Vaia Papadimitriou

the fermilab accelerator complex
The Fermilab Accelerator Complex

√s 1.96 TeV

CDF

D0

P

P

MAIN INJECTOR: 150 GeV

RECYCLER / e-COOLING

Vaia Papadimitriou

tevatron performance
Tevatron Performance
  • Tevatron (Run I 1992-96, ∫L dt = 110 pb-1 ):
    • p  pbar at s = 1.8 TeV, 3.5 ms between collisions
  • Tevatron (Run II 2002-Present, ∫L dt = ~1.53 fb-1 ):
    • p   pbar at s = 1.96 TeV, 396 ns between collisions

( original plan for 132 ns )

FY06

Best 1.72 x 1032 cm-1s-1

~ 1.53 fb-1 delivered per experiment in Run II

FY06

FY05

7.17 pb-1 delivered per experiment in one store, Feb. 12, 2006

FY05

FY04

FY03

FY03

FY04

FY02

FY02

Vaia Papadimitriou

collider luminosity history per detector
Collider Luminosity History (per detector)
  • 1986-1987 Eng. Run I
    • .05 pb-1
  • 1988-1989 Eng. Run II
    • 9.2 pb-1
  • Run Ia (1992-1993)
    • 32.2 pb-1
  • Run Ib (1994-1996)
    • 154.7 pb-1
  • Run IIa (2002-2005)
    • 1200 pb-1
  • Run IIb (2006-2009)
    • 3,060 – 6,880 pb-1
  • Run IIa + IIb (2002-2009)
    • 4,260 – 8,080 pb-1

Log Scale !

Projected

Projected

Vaia Papadimitriou

luminosity
Luminosity
  • The major luminosity limitations are
    • The number of antiprotons (BNpbar)
    • The proton beam brightness (Np/ep)
      • Beam-Beam effects
    • The transverse antiproton emittance
    • Transverse beam optics at the interaction point (b*)
    • F<1

~30 cm

Vaia Papadimitriou

tevatron performance1
Tevatron Performance

Vaia Papadimitriou

stacking performance
Stacking Performance

FY06

FY05

FY04

FY03

FY02

Stack size (1010)

Zero stack stacking rate

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide9

Expected Integrated Luminosity

8.1 fb-1

Fermilab Tevatron

6.7 fb-1

DESIGN

30 mA/hr

5.3 fb-1

4.3 fb-1

BASE

15 mA/hr

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide10

Accumulated Luminosity and Luminosity per fiscal year

Luminosity per fiscal year

Accumulated Luminosity

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide11

Expected Peak Luminosity

30 mA/hr

15 mA/hr

Vaia Papadimitriou

data sets
Data sets

1.62 fb-1

  • CDF/D0 have about 10 million J/y’s each in 1 fb-1 of Run II data.

1.30 fb-1

1.44 fb-1

1.20 fb-1

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide13

Trigger rates

Vaia Papadimitriou

a study of store lifetime

L

=

0

L

(

t

)

t

+

1

t

A Study of Store Lifetime
  • Collected data for all Tevatron stores of 2004-2005 lasting longer than 24 hours
    • Used 116 stores
    • Fit first 24h of each store with:
    • Fit is typically good to better than ~ 5%
    • Model is easy to integrate/solve
    • Only two parameters (L0, t )
  • Phenomenological study oftvs. L0 to extrapolate to higher luminosities
  • Use results to predict integrated luminosities for low lum tables that “kick-in” only after instantaneous luminosity drops below threshold.

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide15

Typical projected store evolution

34%

66%

36%

64%

Inst. Luminosity (E32)

Inst. Luminosity (E32)

Peak Lum = 3E32

Peak Lum = 2E32

hours

hours

  • < 1.5 E32
  • 1.5 – 2.0 E32
  • 2.0 – 2.5 E32
  • 2.5 – 3.0 E32

Vaia Papadimitriou

the d0 detector
The D0 Detector
  • Excellent muon and tracking coverage
      • Tracking up to |h|<3
      • Muons up to |h|<2

Vaia Papadimitriou

j y triggers
J/y triggers
  • Central (|h|<1.6) muon pT requirements are 1.5 GeV/c and 3.0 GeV/c
  • Forward muons do not have tracking coverage and one cannot apply pT cuts at Level 1. (~1 GeV/c muons can penetrate the iron)
  • At higher trigger levels one requires either two forward muons with pT >2 GeV/c or one forward and one central muon with pTs greater than 1 and 3 GeV/c respectively.
  • Dielectron triggers as well in Run IIA but with roughly a factor of 500 smaller yield. Expect to collect more dielectron J/y’s in Run IIB ( ~ 5-10 times smaller yield than dimuon J/y’s)
  • No dynamic prescaling (DPS) used; change prescales every few hours

Vaia Papadimitriou

the cdf detector
The CDF Detector
  • Excellent mass resolution
  • Particle ID: dE/dx, TOF
  • Tracking triggers (Hadronic B’s):
      • L1: Tracks
      • L2: Secondary vertex

Central Muon Detectors: |h|<1.0

Central Outer Tracker: |h|<1.0

dE/dx for PID

1.3<|h|<3.5

ToF counter for K/p separation

placed right before the solenoid

3.5<|h|<5.1

Silicon: |z0|<45 cm, |h|<2.0

Vaia Papadimitriou

j y triggers1
J/y triggers

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Prescale

  • CMU1.5/CMU1.5 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMU L2 10:1:1
  • CMU1.5/CMX2 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMX L2 10:1:1
  • CMU1.5/CMX2 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMX L2 PS=2
  • CMU1.5/CMU1.5 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMU L2 PS=2
  • CMU1.5/CMU1.5 auto J/yCMUCMU L2 PS=100
  • CMU1.5/CMX2 auto J/yCMUCMX L2 PS=100
  • CMUP4 auto J/yCMUCMU L2 50:10:1
  • CMUP4 auto J/yCMUCMX L2 50:10:1
  • CMUP4 CMUP8 J/yCMUCMU L2 10:1:1
  • CMUP4 CMUP8 J/yCMUCMX L2 10:1:1

DPS

DPS

calibration

DPS

Single lepton

DPS

High pT

DPS

DPS

polarization

Dielectron triggers as well

Vaia Papadimitriou

trigger cross section rate extrapolation

Current XFT

Upgraded XFT

Trigger cross section - rate extrapolation
  • As the luminosity increases, higher average number of primary interactions per bunch crossing yield more complex events with higher occupancies and higher trigger rates which cause higher dead time fractions and lower efficiencies.

One example: High Pt CMX Muon

In principle, a physics process

trigger cross section, s, is

constant .

In reality, a given trigger cross

section behaves as:

s = A/L + B + CL + DL2

Use existing data to

extrapolate

Confirmation of XFT tracks by stereo layers

is expected to yield a substantial reduction of fakes

Vaia Papadimitriou

trigger daq upgrades for higher luminosity
Trigger/DAQ Upgrades for higher luminosity
  • Goals
    • Increase bandwidth at all levels
    • Improve purity at L1
  • Status - Complete
    • COT TDC -- readout latency
    • COT Track Trigger (XFT)-- purity
    • Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT)-- latency
    • L2/L3 trigger -- latency
    • Event builder -- latency
    • Data logger -- throughput

Add stereo layer info

  • Track trigger installation done, being commissioned
  • Data logger installation in progress

Proc power: 1THz  2.6THz

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide22

Impact of L2 decision crate & SVT upgrades

on L1 bandwidth

After

Upgrade

Lumi~90E30

Before

Upgrade

Lumi~20-50E30

5%

Before: 5% deadtime

with L1A 18KHz

@ ~< 50E30

After: 5% deadtime

with L1A 25KHz

@ ~ 90E30

Dead time %

18KHz 25KHz

L1A rate (Hz)

Vaia Papadimitriou

trigger rate extrapolation jet 100 gev
Trigger rate extrapolation – Jet 100 GeV

Primary vertex multiplicity vs inst. luminosity

Predicted cross section vs inst. luminosity

3rd order poly

3rd order poly

Trigger cross section vs

primary vertex multipl.

2nd order poly

Vaia Papadimitriou

trigger rate extrapolation b hadronic two track trigger
Trigger rate extrapolation – B hadronic two track trigger

Primary vertex multiplicity vs inst. luminosity

Predicted cross section vs inst. luminosity

3rd order poly

3rd order poly

Trigger cross section vs

primary vertex multipl.

2nd order poly

Vaia Papadimitriou

j y triggers for higher luminosity
J/y triggers for higher luminosity

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Prescale

  • CMU1.5/CMU1.5 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMU L2 10:1:1
  • CMU1.5/CMX2 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMX L2 10:1:1
  • CMU1.5/CMX2 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMX L2 PS=25
  • CMU1.5/CMU1.5 df<1200, oppQ J/yCMUCMU L2 PS=2 5
  • CMU1.5/CMU1.5 J/yCMUCMU no pres.
  • CMU1.5/CMX2 J/yCMUCMX no pres.
  • CMUP4 auto J/yCMUCMU L2 50:10:1
  • CMUP4 auto J/yCMUCMX L2 50:10:1
  • CMUP4 CMUP8 J/yCMUCMU L2 10:1:1
  • CMUP4 CMUP8 J/yCMUCMX L2 10:1:1

DPS

DPS

1.75, 2.5 GeV/c

2< mT < 4 GeV

DPS

DPS

DPS

DPS

Vaia Papadimitriou

preparation for doing physics at highest luminosity
Preparation for doing physics at highest luminosity
  • Dedicated studies to understand evolution of Tracking, Lepton Identification, B-Jet Tagging, Missing Energy Resolution, Jet Corrections, etc.
  • Strategy:
    • Use Monte Carlo: over-lay additional minimum-bias events to simulate luminosity up to 3 E32
    • Use data: in bins of # of interactions/event; makes use of the bunch-to-bunch luminosity variations to gain a level arm to higher luminosity
    • Data vs MC comparison

Online

Trigger/DAQ

Offline

computing

detector

Analysis/meetings

PRL

~100s ns ~ µs to ~ms ~weeks ~ months

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide27

Avg

now

Avg

2007-09

Peak (3 E32)

2007-09

Tracking: High Occupancy Physics

vs number of z vertices

  • At highest luminosities:
    • COT efficiency more significantly impacted
    • SVX efficiency minimally affected

Top, Higgs,…

  • on Average: 10% (relative) loss in B-tag efficiency

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide28

1%

Tracking: Low Occupancy Physics

B, W, …

  • No significant effect on this type of CDF physics program

Vaia Papadimitriou

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The Tevatron is running very well (1.53 fb-1 delivered)
  • Many new results
  • The Tevatron is expected to provide 4.3 – 8.1 fb-1 by October 2009
  • Typical peak luminosities of the order of 1.5-1.6 x 1032 now and 2.0-3.0 x 1032 expected
  • CDF and D0 have of the order of 107 J/y’s each in 1fb-1 of data
  • They expect to retain similar yields up to 2 x 1032 and 80-95% of the yield per fb-1 at higher peak luminosities
  • A lot of answers and surprises awaiting!!

Vaia Papadimitriou

backup
Backup

Backup Slides

Vaia Papadimitriou

tevatron performance2
Tevatron Performance

FY06

Design

FY05

Base

FY02

FY06

FY05

FY04

FY03

FY02

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide32

Expected Weekly Luminosity

Vaia Papadimitriou

data analysis and physics results turn around time
Data Analysis and physics results turn around time
  • Data Analysis processing power:
    • 8.2 THz - distributed among 10 Central Analysis Farms (CAFs)
    • 5.8THz on-site (30% from non-FNAL funds), 2.4 THz off-site (for Monte Carlo)
    • Improvement - use a single entry point for job submission to offsite CAFs
      • expands CPU resources available for CDF and increases efficiency of their use (world-wide CDF-Grid of CPU clusters)
  • Physics results turn around time:

recent 1 fb-1 data to 1st physics result ~ 10 weeks

Online

Trigger/DAQ

Offline

computing

detector

Analysis/meetings

PRL

~100s ns ~ µs to ~ms ~weeks ~ months

Vaia Papadimitriou

antiproton parameters
Antiproton Parameters

Vaia Papadimitriou

future pbar work
Lithium Lens (0 – 15%)

Lens Gradient from 760T/m to 1000 T/m

Slip Stacking (7%)

Currently at 7.5x1012 on average

Design 8.0x1012 on average

AP2 Line (5-30%)

Lens Steering

AP2 Steer to apertures

AP2 Lattice

Debuncher Aperture (13%)

Currently at 30-32um

Design to 35um

DRF1 Voltage (5%)

Currently running on old tubes at 4.0 MEV

Need to be a t 5.3 MeV

Accumulator & D/A Aperture (20%)

Currently at 2.4 sec

Design to 2.0 sec

Stacktail Efficiency

Can improve core 4-8 GHz bandwidth by a factor of 2

Timeline Effects

SY120 takes up 7% of the timeline

Future Pbar Work

Vaia Papadimitriou

trigger cross section rate extrapolation is based on existing data

Current XFT

Upgraded XFT

Trigger cross section/rate extrapolation is based on existing data

One example: High Pt CMX Muon

  • Main reason for the growth of

trigger cross section is the

increasing # of interactions

per bunch crossing

  • By counting the number of

vertices found offline,

one could estimate

the effective luminosity

  • Variation of bunch to

bunch luminosity due to

anti-proton intensity…

Those information is used for rate extrapolation and cross checks

Confirmation of XFT tracks by stereo layers

is expected to yield a substantial reduction of fakes

Vaia Papadimitriou

slide37

Tracking (SVX & COT): High Occupancy Physics

  • At highest luminosities:
    • SVX efficiency minimally affected
    • COT efficiency more significantly impacted

#hits on tracks

SVX

COT

Number of interactions per event

Vaia Papadimitriou