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A Technical Overview Byron Buie for, Telonix Communications Inc.
Introduction • HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) What is it ? • HDMI v1.3 vs. existing technologies such as Component, S video and DVI. • Active devices that are available to facilitate and distribute HDMI. • Introduction to HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection). • Opportunities for HDMI
What is HDMI ? • HDMI is the first & only industry supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. • HDMI provides an interface between any A/V source, such as a set-top box, DVD player, or A/V receiver and an audio and/or video monitor, such as a digital television (DTV), over a single cable. • HDMI supports standard, enhanced, or high-definition video, plus multi-channel digital audio on a single cable. • Transmits all ATSC HDTV standards and supports 8-channel, 192kHz, uncompressed digital audio, all currently-available compressed formats & lossless digital audio formats with bandwidth to spare to accommodate future enhancements and requirements • HDMI acts like Cat5, it passes a data signal not an RF signal like CATV.
HDMI over existing analog interfaces • Because HDMI is a digital interface, it provides the best quality of the video since there are no lossy analog to digital conversions as are required for all analog connections (such as component or S-Video). • Digital video will be sharper than component, and eliminates the softness and ghosting found with component. Small, high contrast details such as text bring this difference out the most. • Single cable for both video and audio is the most effective format ! • HDMI devices supporting HDCP have the comfort of knowing they will have access to premium HD content now and in the future.
DVI Versus HDMI HDMI Connector DVI Connector HDMI Connector DVI Connector DVI is HDMI without the audio – Separate cable needed for audio !
HDMI over DVI • HDMI is DVI with the addition of: - Audio (up to 8-channels uncompressed) - Smaller Connector - Support for YUV Color Space - CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) - CEA-861B Info Frames • HDMI is fully backward compatible with DVI compliant devices. HDMI DTVs will display video received from existing DVI-equipped products, and DVI-equipped TVs & will display video from HDMI sources. Make sure your DVI device supports HDCP.
The Cable • TMDS - Transition Minimized Differential Signaling • refers to the high speed signal data, audio and video are multiplexed, eliminating the need for audio channels • DDC - Display Data Channel • is a digital connection between a display and a graphics adapter that allows the display to communicate its specifications to the adapter • serial data intelligence • supply channel, provides power to DDC whether on/off • simply put plug and play • CEC- Consumer Electronics Control • industry standard protocol, is used for remote control functions, universal remote
HDMI v1.3 What does it deliver? • Bandwidth more than doubled from 165 MHz (4.95 Gbps) to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbps) to support Higher Resolution, Faster Refresh, and Deep Color. • HDMI is a conduit or pipe that moves data. • With more bandwidth we have more room for more goodies today and in the future. • Backward compatible with legacy versions.
Current world: limited to 24 bits/ pixel color -16 million colors Deep Color allows 24, 30, 36 and 48 bits/pixel color depth Billions of colors Eliminates artifacts that appear as bands or contours Increases contrast ratios for sharper images & greater detail More accurately represents original material Greater Bandwidth for Deep ColorIn the Future
Deep Color • Deep Color increases the number of bits available for transmission for each channel. • So, for example, a TV that accepts the 24 or 12-bit form can mix together any one of 4,096 shades (levels of brightness) of each primary color for 68.7 billion possible colors. 4,096 red x 4,096 green x 4,096 blue = 68,719,476,736 colors!!
xvYCC is the next generation HD color. Space standard − IEC 619966-2-4 vs. older ITU BT.709-5. Takes full advantage of color rendering capabilities of modern digital displays vs. older CRT technology. Simply, it allows for more room around the current RGB cube. xvYCC Extended Color Gamut for Realistic and Natural Color
HDMI Problems - Cable Equalization • Cables are just a big filter. • Receivers can compensate for that filter by applying an equal but opposite filter. • Different lengths change slope of attenuation – receiver can target particular cable lengths. • HDMI 1.3 measures Cat2 cable output after applying an ideal “Reference Cable Equalizer” • HDMI 1.3 measures receiver performance against this same spec.
HDMI Problems - Termination • In a serial transmission line changes in impedance are bad and can cause reflections back to the source signal. (RL problems). • Connectors frequently have impedance mismatches and cause some reflection and will affect the signal quality.
HDMI Problems - Bit Transition Analysis • Masks help highlight digital data waves. • Good symmetry going around the mask and keeping clear spacing between the signal and mask are necessary for a signal integrity. • Touching the mask or “kissing the dirt” is where bit errors will occur and cause sporadic “sparkles” on the screen. • HDMI cables with good masking have a greater mask margin.
Other HDMI Problems Areas • Manufacturing, non-approved HDMI cables can produce poor results • Poor installation, long cable runs, improper active devices, lack of knowledge • Conglomerations of circuit boards, twisted cables, interconnects, connectors, and electronic components can create a maze of signal loss
What is HDCP? • High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection encrypts data over HDMI. • HDCP helps bring high-definition digital content to consumers by providing copy protection over HDMI
History of HDCP • Developed by Intel Corporation to prevent copying of digital audio and video content as it travels across HDMI, DVI etc. • Supported by the majority of CE manufacturers, government and content providers • Emphasizes that HDMI is a smart cable
Handshaking • Handshaking is making sure that all of your HDMI devices can recognize each other • Source: The source sends the content to be displayed. Examples include set-top boxes, DVD and Blu-Ray players, and computer video cards. A source has only an HDCP/HDMI transmitter. • Sink: The sink renders the content for display so it can be viewed. Examples include TVs and digital projectors. A sink has one or more HDCP/HDMI receiver. • Repeater: A repeater accepts content, decrypts it, then re-encrypts and retransmits the data. It may perform some signal processing, such as upconverting video into a higher-resolution format, or splitting out the audio portion of the signal. Repeaters have both HDMI inputs and outputs an example would be a AV receiver
Good and Bad • HDCP along with HDMI protects content. • Handshaking can be a problem with setting up an AV install. • Installer or consumer needs to ensure that their devices are HDCP enabled. • DVD players, DVI HDTV present problems. • Screen and source will want to get the highest resolution, will downgrade if screen cannot accommodate, older TVs primarily.
HDCP/HDMI Problems • Cable flexibility, this helps, avoid 90 degree kinks, you may degrade data transfer. • Better results with broad turns if possible. • If you can use exact cable lengths. • Too much wire, sloppy wire management and low quality products will degrade the install.. • Everything you add to the system will affect the margin of headroom.
Problems DDC Failure (Display Data Channel • DDC failure comes from accumulation of capacitance from all parts that make up the system. • Failures such as no audio, picture, pink screen or flashing. • If the DDC line has larger rise time issues it will not pass HDCP • There are conditioners available to help raise the allowable capacitance
Going the Distance • Currently the answer is to have an equalizer. • Cables of long lengths have equalizers in them, easy solution, cable life is shortened. • Equalizers can be fixed, adjustable and adaptive. • Cat5 extenders, allow for meters of added distance using Cat5 cable, but requires a transmitter and receiver.
Troubleshooting • Be Pro-active, use products you are familiar with that have consistently worked in the past. • Use quality products, do research & check specifications. • If available look at mask margin percentage, skew timing, and DDC rise time numbers. • Check for a flexible and well made cable, the signals may be the same but the components may not & look for cable bends. • Look for a strong outer mould connector, metal or plastic. • DDC can cause issues, HDCP and capacitance.
HDMI Opportunities • HDMI is growing with the advancement of high definition programming and DVDs. • Video Games and PC are also integrating HDMI for optimization of their products. • Commercially companies are choosing HDMI, sports and entertainment, video displays, airports, restaurants the list goes on.
Commercial • Increased revenue streams. • Refurbishment projects of commercial buildings i.e.. offices, airport terminals, restaurants. • Less set top boxes due to extenders and HDMI active devices. • Perfect for new builds using cat5e cable to extend your HDMI signal.
Split it Switch it Extend it Repeaters What can we do with HDMI Product
For the Home • Currently end users are eating up bandwidth for multiple reasons. • Customers want maximum bandwidth for HDTV, internet and gaming. • Fiber to the home will put increased demand for high end HD content. • Help the customer before he/she has to go out and find their own solution, they will call you first. • Your first on site why give the business to someone else. • The end user gets what they paid for.
Thank youFor more information please visitwww.hdmi.org Byron Buie for: TELONIX Communications 15-305 Industrial Parkway South Aurora, Ontario L4G 6X7 Canada Richard Hazell President Titan HDTV Accessories Corp. 13511 Crestwood Place, Suite 10 Richmond British Columbia V6V 2G1 Canada
Deciphering Cables & Connections Click here to download our Projector Connection diagram » HDMI Cables HDMI stands for High-Definition Multimedia Interface. It transmits uncompressed digital video and audio over a single, compact cable. The type, amount and speed of data HDMI carries expands with each HDMI release. As of May 2010, HDMI was currently on version 1.4, which includes the capacity to transmit a 3D signal, as well as an Ethernet connection, among other features. The HDMI consortium has banned manufacturers from advertising the release number (i.e. 1.3, 1.3b, 1.4, etc). Instead, manufacturers should promote the cable's features, for example HDMI with Ethernet, HDMI standard or HDMI high speed. HDMI supports any TV or PC video format, including standard, enhanced and high-definition video; up to 8 channels of digital audio; and a Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) connection. The CEC allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one remote control. HDMI connections are backwards compatible among the various releases (i.e. 1.4 and 1.3), as well as with DVI devices for video sources. Since the conversion is a pin-to-pin connection, there should be no detectable signal loss when converted. However, the DVI to HDMI conversions will not be able to carry the 8 channel audio signal available on a pure HDMI connection, since DVI ports don't support audio. Since video projectors and computer monitors do not typically provide high quality audio, DVI is likely to remain strong in these areas. Browse our selection of HDMI cables » VGA Cables This is your standard monitor cable. It is typically male-to-male with three rows, 15 pins. A VGA cable is used for computer to monitor, or computer to projector connections. Its only home theater application may be as a connection to an HDTV decoder, such as the current RCA model. View our VGA cables and adaptors » DVI Cables Digital Video Interface (DVI) cables look a little like a standard VGA cable, but they are slightly larger. Under ideal circumstances, the DVI cable creates a 'digital to digital' connection between video or data source and display device. There are, however, only limited situations when this ideal circumstance occurs. See our HDCP over DVI article for more about this technology. Browse our selection of DVI cables » USB Connections USB was designed in 1993 by a cooperative of several companies including Intel, Compaq, Digital, Microsoft and NEC. With a maximum bandwidth of 12 Mbits/sec (equivalent to 1.5 Mbytes/sec), USB transfers data at a modest speed. However, it is considered very user friendly, due in part to its "hot swap" capability. USB is available in two different connection types, Type A and B. The type A socket (see diagram) is rectangular in shape, and usually connects to the host or hub, typically a PC. The type B connection (see diagram) looks more like a square, and connects to the end peripheral, such as a digital camera. Video projectors do not always offer either USB connections, but when they do, they more commonly use the type B connector for the purpose of providing remote control mouse function. Some projectors also include a type A connector which is used in combination with a USB key. Since most projectors do not have built-in processors, they cannot run PowerPoint presentations in their native environment from a USB key. Manufacturers include special software that essentially takes image captures of each slide, and stores them in .jpeg format. Those jpegs are then stored on the USB key and accessed from the projector and act as your presentation. This allows you to present (and possibly travel) without your laptop computer. S-Video or Y/C Cables This cable might also be referred to as a SVHS cable and can be found on most high-end televisions, all videodisc players, camcorders, digital cable and satellite set top boxes, and SVHS VCRs. S-video cables differ from composite cables in that they split video signal into two different components: luminance and chrominance. The S-video cable will offer marked improvement over a composite cable. Browse our selection of S-Video cables » Component Cables Component cables look just like composite cables. The difference is that, where a composite cable carries the entire video signal on a single cable, component cables split the signal in three. This connection gives a superior image over composite or S-video connections. The signal itself is referred to as either Y,Cr,Cb, or Y,Pb,Pr. Most manufacturers make connecting these cables easy by color coordinating them. The tips of the cables and jacks will be red, green and blue. Unfortunately, this can be a bit confusing because computer RGB connections are colored the same way. A good rule of thumb is that, if the connections are RCA type, it is usually a component cable. Computer RGB cables will usually be BNC type. Most high-end DVD players and HDTV tuners will have component connections. Browse our selection of Component cables » Portable Projectors and Component Cables (15-pin to 3-RCA connection) Portable projectors usually have very little space for connections. Due to the space restriction, many have the 15-pin VGA connection double as the component connection as well. The projector will use the same three pins out of the fifteen-pin connector for component video that it uses for its RGB computer connections. The projector is designed to detect the type of signal it receives and process it accordingly. If you need a component cable for one of these projectors, you should order a cable that has a 15-pin connector on one side, and three RCA/BNC connectors on the other. Some larger projectors have separate component connections. Consult the spec sheets. RCA or Composite Cables These are the most common cables, used to hook up your standard VCR and stereo equipment. Typically, they are color-coded: red, white, and yellow. Red is for right channel audio. White is for left channel audio. Yellow is for video. The entire video signal is transmitted by one cable. This is the lowest quality cable for a video source, but again, it is also the most common. Most new televisions, all video camcorders, all VCRs, and all videodisc players will have RCA jacks for these cables. BNC Cables A BNC cable is actually just another form of an RCA/composite cable. The end of the cable looks different from an RCA cable, but can be changed to an RCA end with a simple adapter. Most professional video equipment will have a BNC jack instead of a RCA jack. The physical connection is more secure because BNC cables twist and lock in place. Browse our selection of BNC component cables » RGBHV Cables Again, these cables look identical to simple composite cables. But this time, the RGBHV cable splits the video signal into five. There are three different types of RGB cables. RGBHV is a five-cable system that splits the video signal for color into red, green, and blue, and then has two more cables to carry the sync for the signal (horizontal and vertical sync). RGB H/V is a four-cable system that splits the color the same way, but has the horizontal and vertical sync on a single fourth cable. Straight RGB video cables again split the color signal in three, but carry the additional sync signal on one of the color cables, usually the green (called RGB sync on green). An RGBHV signal is the way a computer connects to a projector. Five pins on a 15-pin VGA cable are RGBHV. The projector recognizes the type of signal and projects accordingly. RGBHV connectors are found on most high-end professional monitors and on the most popular HDTV decoder (by RCA). Note that RCA has chosen to send the HDTV signal via a 15-pin VGA cable instead of a component connection. This may become the standard connection for HDTV tuners in the future. We will have to wait and see.