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  1. Standards Where we came from and where we are going Function of Standards f(st) = c2 Dr.Brennon Sapp October 2010 KCTM

  2. Let’s Start with a Math Problem(worthy of the new standards) Compare the following sets of equations when x1+x2+x3+x4+x5+x6+x7+x8 =1 : • f(x) = 0x1 + 0.13 x2 + 0.26x3 + 0.4x4 + 0.6x5 + 0.8x6+ x7 +1.4x8 • f(x) = 0(x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6) + (x7 + x8) How might we go about maximizing f(x) for each equation?

  3. Why Change?

  4. In 2004, the unemployment rate for recent high school graduates who had not enrolled in college in the fall of 2004 was 20 percent. The unemployment rate for young people who dropped out of high school between October 2003 and October 2004 was 40 percent.

  5. Why Change?

  6. There will never ever be another time when we can’t get information.In fact we have too much information and we don’t know how to judge if it is right, wrong, useful, or useless.

  7. Greatest Accomplishment In Mathematics? • Counting • Discovery of Zero

  8. We have to Teach Students to Think What do you do when you don’t know what to do?

  9. To Quote an Authority “Give a man a fish. . . .blah blahblah” “Teach a man to fish . . . blah blah blah”

  10. According to the Professionals “We are living in a world without borders. To meet the realities of the 21st century global economy and maintain America’s competitive edge into the future, we need students who are prepared to compete not only with their American peers, but with students from all across the globe for the jobs of tomorrow.” CCSSO

  11. According to the Professionals “Governors recognize that new economic realities mean it no longer matters how one U.S. state compares to another on a national test; what matters is how a state’s students compare to those in countries around the globe” NGA Do you? Or are you still comparing your students success to the next school over? The next county over? The state average (do you know what Kentucky is rated Nationally/Internationally?)

  12. Let’s Put it Another Way “Stop GPS-ing student’s learning” “Teach them to read a map” Dr. Ann Shannon Gates Consultant

  13. First Standards • The most ancient mathematical texts available are Plimpton 322(Babylonian, 1900 BC) • The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus(Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC) • Moscow Mathematical Papyrus(Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.

  14. Pimpton 322 A Listing of Pythagorean Triples

  15. Rhind Mathematical Papyrus “Accurate reckoning for inquiring into things, and the knowledge of all things, mysteries...all secrets.”

  16. Rhind Mathematical Papyrus The first part consists of reference tables and a collection of 40 algebraic problems • simple fractional expressions • completion (sekhem) problems • linear equations (aha problems).

  17. Moscow Mathematical Papyrus

  18. Moscow Mathematical Papyrus • Ship’s part problems. . .problems like calculations for the length of a ship’s rudder or the length of a ship’s mast given that it is 1/3 + 1/5 of the length of a cedar log originally 30 cubits long • Aha problems-involve finding unknown quantities if the sum of the quantity and part(s) of it are given. • Pefsu Problems-ratios for figuring the strength of beer or bread • Baku problems-to calculate the output of workers • Geometry Problems-area, surface area, and volume

  19. Earliest Chinese Math Text The Suànshùshū (筭數書), or the Writings on Reckoning . . . .

  20. Earliest Chinese Math Text

  21. Earliest Chinese Math Text (Book) • 69 mathematical problems from a variety of sources. • Each problem has a question, an answer, followed by a method. • elementary arithmetic • Fractions • inverse proportion • factorization of numbers • geometric progressions • interest rate calculations • conversion between units • false position method for finding roots • extraction of approximate square roots • volume of various 3-d shapes • relative dimensions of a square and its inscribed circle ¶= 3

  22. First Calculators?

  23. First Calculators?

  24. Exponential Time Jump

  25. When was the first time “We” got standards? Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA)

  26. Kentucky Education Reform Act In 1990, the Kentucky General Assembly passed the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) in response to a ruling the previous year by the Kentucky Supreme Court that the commonwealth's education system was unconstitutional

  27. Kentucky Program of Studies Which is still by law what we are responsible to teach to each and every student • Goal 1 (Basic Communication and mathematics Skills) • Goal 2 (Application of Core Concepts) • Goal 3 (Developing Self-Sufficiency)* • Goal 4 (Responsible Group Membership)* • Goal 5 (Think and Solve Problems) • Goal 6 (Connect and Integrate Knowledge) *Not to be assessed by state testing

  28. KIRIS The Kentucky Instructional Results Information Service (KIRIS) was used from 1992 to 1998, and included • open-response items • performance events • on-demand writing prompts • mathematics portfolios

  29. KIRIS It was during this time we received: Transformations: Kentucky’s Curriculum Framework, (1995).

  30. Transformations (Vol. I) • (1) definitions of the academic expectations which indicate student progress toward the outcome; • (2) ideas for making connections to real-life situations; • (3) samples of topics and processes within content areas • (4) teaching and assessment strategies • (5) ideas for incorporating community resources • (6) activities to involve students • (7) reflections on academic expectations.

  31. Transformations (Vol. 2) • (1) transforming the learning environment to foster change • (2) alternative uses of school time to address curricular needs • (3) local curriculum development guide • (4) teachers' questions about implementation • (5) resources which identify teaching and assessment strategies, sources, models, and key readings.

  32. Core Content ?.?

  33. CATS 1998 legislation replaced KIRIS with the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System, using open-response and multiple-choice items, an on-demand writing prompt, A writing portfolio, and the terranova national norm-referenced test.

  34. CATS • Testing was divided across grades to limit the burden on teachers and students in any single grade • Mathematics portfolios, which have been part of KIRIS in grades five, eight, and twelve, were suspended • NRT?

  35. Commonwealth Accountability Testing System Major changes in CATS were made in 2007 • revisions to the content being tested • years each subject is tested • relative weight given to different topics • relative weight given to multiple-choice and open-response questions • the national norm-referenced test included in school scores • “cut points” used to convert students’ numerical scores to performance levels

  36. Senate Bill 1 February 10, 2009

  37. Did KERA/KIRIS/CATS Work? • Money in the state is distributed more fairly • According to teachers-they receive more support and direction on good instruction • According to administrators schools focus more on instruction and quality teaching in more sought after and valued • According to Kentucky data, elementary schools would have surpassed the 2014 goal, middle schools would have reached the 2014 goal, but high schools would have not reached the 2014 goal of proficiency

  38. Did KERA/KIRIS/CATS Work? • According to many experts and professional organizations “The nation follows Kentucky on educational reform.” • Based on the center’s National Education Index, Kentucky’s ranking has gone from 43rd in 1992 to 35th in 2007, a finding consistent with Education Week’s “Quality Counts 2008”  Achievement Index, which ranks Kentucky 40th, and the Morgan Quitno2006-07 Smartest State Index, which ranks Kentucky 31st • The center also notes that “Only two states that were in the bottom ten in 1992 managed to climb out of that group: Kentucky and North Carolina

  39. Common Core State Standards Initiative

  40. Who Else is at the Table? Work groups comprised of representatives from higher education, K-12 education, teachers, and researchers drafted the Common Core State Standards. The work groups consulted educators, administrators, community and parent organizations, higher education representatives, the business community, researchers, civil rights groups. . . A list of work groups and expert members is available at

  41. Focus The point of the state-led effort to create common academic standards is simple: improving teaching and learning to ensure that high school graduates in every part of the nation have the knowledge and skills they need for college or a career. The process is designed to produce standards that are research and evidence-based as well as internationally benchmarked. If students meet these new rigorous and clear standards, they will have better choices in their lives and the nation will be more competitive in today’s global economy.

  42. Overview of the Initiative State-led and developed common core standards for K-12 in English/language arts and mathematics Focus on learning expectations for students, not how students get there.

  43. Why Now? Disparate standards across states Student mobility Global competition Today’s jobs require different skills

  44. Why is This Important for Students, Teachers, and Parents? • Prepares students with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in college and work • Ensures consistent expectations regardless of a student’s zip code • Provides educators, parents, and students with clear, focused guideposts

  45. What Momentum is There for the Initiative? 48 states, the District of Columbia, and two territories have signed on to the Common Core State Standards Initiative

  46. Criteria for the Standards • Fewer, clearer, and higher • Aligned with college and work expectations • Include rigorous content and application of knowledge through high-order skills • Build upon strengths and lessons of current state standards • Internationally benchmarked, so that all students are prepared to succeed in our global economy and society • Based on evidence and research not professional opinion