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Broadcast and Recording Studio Construction and Technical Considerations. By Jesse Role, Ph. D. TM - Electronics Chairman, Department of Technology University of Eastern Africa, Baraton. Topics Covered. Studio design and size Internal and external e nvironment Lighting consideration

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broadcast and recording studio construction and technical considerations

Broadcast and Recording Studio Construction and Technical Considerations


Jesse Role, Ph. D. TM - Electronics

Chairman, Department of Technology

University of Eastern Africa, Baraton

topics covered
  • Studio design and size
  • Internal and external environment
  • Lighting consideration
  • sound acoustics material considerations
  • Room temperature
  • Furniture and fixture
  • Maximum and minimum expected performers
  • Inventory
  • Safety measures
technology considerations
Technology Considerations

• Number of desired studios

• Acoustic treatment

• Choice of acoustic material

• Choice of studio equipment

• Choice of transmitting equipment

studio design and size
Studio Design and Size
  • Studio can come in various shapes, sometimes based on available space.
  • Types of studio
    • Main studio or broadcast studio
    • Remote studio- studio for performers who cannot control the mixing control.
    • Backup studio-can be used as emergency studio in case other studio cannot be used.
  • Availability of funds
room sizes and shapes

The size and shape of a room determine its natural resonances - often called room modes.

There are a few "ideal" ratios of room height, width, and length that professionalstudio designers agree should be used if possible. Three of these ratios, developedby L.W. Sepmeyer, are shown in the Table .

room size
  • Example:
  • 2.50 m height; 2.85 m width; 3.50 m length
  • 2.50 m height; 3.20 m width; 3.85 m length
  • 2.50 m height; 4.00 m width; 5.80 m length
recording areas
Recording areas
  • Recording control booth
    • Editing area
    • Dubbing
  • Performance area
    • Live broadcast
    • Pre-recording
    • Dubbing
room symmetry

Recording Control Booth


Symmetry matters! In a typical stereo mixing room, the loudspeakers are spaced equally from the walls and corners, and form an equilateral triangle at the mix position. The arrangement shown on the left is better than the one on the right because it's more symmetrical within the room. The layout on the right also suffers from a focusing effect caused by the wall-wall junction behind the listener.

internal and external environment
Internal and External Environment
  • Wind factor (considering wind flow)
  • Sun orientation
  • Room location
  • Noise factor
  • Possible vibrations
lighting consideration
Lighting Consideration
  • Lighting height
  • Lighting lumens
  • Lighting color
  • Types of light
  • Lighting control
room temperature
Room temperature
  • Constant temperature (22-25 degrees Celsius )
  • Recommended Air-conditioning
  • Recommended blower fans
furniture and fixture
Furniture and Fixture
  • Types of furniture
  • Use of acoustic friendly furniture
  • Minimizing un-necessary object in the studio

Please understand that acoustic treatment as described in this lecture is designed to control the sound quality within a room.

acoustic treatment

There are four primary goals of acoustic treatment:

1) To prevent standing waves and acoustic interference from affecting the frequency response of recording studios and listening rooms;

2) to reduce modal ringing in small rooms and lower the reverb time in larger studios, churches, and auditoriums;

3) to absorb or diffuse sound in the room to avoid ringing and flutter echoes, and improve stereo imaging; and

4) to keep sound from leaking into or out of a room. That is, to prevent your music from disturbing the neighbors, and to keep the sound of passing trucks from getting into your microphones.

acoustics material mountings
Acoustics material mountings
  • Wall acoustics mountings
  • Ceiling acoustics mounting
  • Floor insulation mounting
choice of acoustic material
Choice of Acoustic Material
  • Affordable
  • Available
  • Replaceable
  • Color
  • Type of material
diffusers and absorbers

The simplest type of diffuser is one or more sheets of plywood attached to a wall at a slight angle, to prevent sound from bouncing repeatedly between the same two walls. Alternatively, the plywood can be bent into a curved shape, though that is more difficult to install. In truth, this is really a deflector, not a diffuser, as described in more detail below. However, a deflector is sufficient to avoid flutter echoes between parallel surfaces.


The higher frequencies (top) are absorbed well because their velocity peaks fall within the material thickness. The lower frequency at the bottom does not achieve as much velocity so it's absorbed less.

noise control

Possible factors creating noise

  • Electrical distortion
  • Frequency interference
  • Wind factors
  • Computer fans or cooling system
  • Defective equipment
  • Defective microphones
  • Wrong equipment adjustments
safety measures checklist
Safety Measures Checklist
  • Fire extinguishers
  • Main switches, must be soft touch
  • Switches location and mounting- it must be in a non fire hazard place.
  • Fire exit signs, etc
  • Evacuation plan layout
  • Emergency Tel. Number
  • Equipment
  • Furniture
  • Tools
  • Supplies
inventory tag sample
Inventory Tag Sample


Equipment Code




equipment record
Equipment Record
  • Name of the equipment
  • Description
  • Brand
  • Date purchase
  • Manufacturer
  • Cost of purchase
  • Condition remarks
  • Date repaired
  • Date disposed
possible dangers for transmitters
Possible dangers for transmitters

• Heat and Dust

• Power fluctuations

• RF reflection – Mismatch due to

– improper antenna

– improper tuning of the antenna

– loose connections between the transmitter and antenna

– Moisture

– Inbuilt protection (fold back)

• Lightning

– lightning arrester

– low resistance earth pit

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