Renaissance • Means “rebirth” and refers to the revival of art and learning following the Middle Ages. • It began in Italy and was based on Greco-Roman Culture.
City-States • Trade created by the crusades resulted in the growth of large and powerful city-states in Italy. • The Bubonic Plague hit these cities hard and they were forced to seek new ways of economic success.
Merchants and the Medici • A wealthy merchant class developed in the Italian city-states as a result of the increased trade. • The Medici were a wealthy merchant family in Florence who came to dominate all parts of Florence’s society.
Greco-Roman Influence • Scholars looked down on Medieval literature and instead learned from the Ancient Greeks and Romans. • They studied ancient texts found in monasteries and examined the ruins of the Romans and Greeks.
Humanism • It is an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. • Instead of trying to apply ancient texts to Christian thought, humanists accept Ancient material for what it is. • Promoted subjects that are today called the Humanities.
Secular • During the Renaissance, people began to view the world in a present rather than a spiritual way. • In other words they interpreted the world more simply and literally.
Patrons • Church leaders and wealthy merchants who spent massive amounts of money on art, literature, and architecture in order to beautify city-states. • It became a way of the wealthy demonstrating their importance.
The Renaissance Man and Woman • Men an women who excelled in many fields were considered Renaissance Men and Women. • The idea was that an individual should not limit themselves and should strive to attain skills in all parts of life.
Perspective • Renaissance began to change the way the depicted the world. • Perspective was the idea and practice of creating paintings that were multi-dimensional and realistic.
Leonardo da Vinci • A painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist who was interested in how things worked. • Some of his famous paintings include the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper.
Raphael and Michelangelo • Both are famous artists, sculptors and thinkers well known for their drive to depict the world realistically. • Michelangelo is most known for the Sistine Chapel and the Statue of David and Raphael for his portraits of Renaissance figures.
Anguissola and Gentileschi • Two of the first female artists of the Renaissance who were both well known for their paintings of various royalty.
Machiavelli • He was a philosopher and political thinker. • One of his most famous works is The Prince. In it, he examines how a ruler can gain and keep power in the face of their enemies. • He believed an effective leader must be intelligent and crafty in order to outwit his opponents.
Vittoria Colonna • A female writer who was well known for her poetry and work for various noble families.
Video Clips • The Medici: 55 Minute Documentary Clip • The Renaissance Song: 3 Minutes • Humanism: 2 Minutes • Machiavelli: 5 Minutes