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The American Revolution. Chapter 7 notes Mrs. kercher. I. The Early Years of the War. A . Americans Divided 1 . 40-20-40% -- Patriot, Loyalist, Neutral 2 . NE & VA – Patriot, NY & the South – Loyalist 3 . Natives, African-Americans, families – split

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the american revolution

The American Revolution

Chapter 7 notes

Mrs. kercher

i the early years of the war
I. The Early Years of the War

A. Americans Divided

1. 40-20-40% -- Patriot, Loyalist, Neutral

2. NE & VA – Patriot, NY & the South – Loyalist

3. Natives, African-Americans, families – split

B. Preparing for War

1. Militias, one year enlistments

2. Lacked supplies, training

3. Women helped – Deborah Sampson

4. British well trained, but unmotivated  Hessians

slide3

C. War in the Middle States

1. Washington and Howe fought in NY 

Americans retreated to Pennsylvania

a. “These are the times that try men’s souls…”

2. Washington crossed the Delaware

a. December 25th, 1776 – Trenton

b. 900 Hessians killed or captured, supplies

c. improved morale

slide4

D. Britain’s Northern Strategy

1. Seize the Hudson River Valley

2. 3 British armies rendezvous  failed

E. Battles Along the Mohawk

1. Benedict Arnold tricked the British

F. Saratoga: A Turning Point

1. British lost several battles around Saratoga

2. Effects – Arnold would become a traitor &

Europeans thought Americans could win

ii the war expands
II. The War Expands

A. Help From Abroad

1. France – money, supplies, troops

2. Spain – SW, Caribbean

3. Britain had to spread out

4. Foreign Officers Arrived

a. Lafayette (French) & de Kalb (German)

slide6

B. Winter at Valley Forge

1. Tough conditions: lack of food and clothing,

disease  Americans endured

2. Baron von Steuben trained them

C. Frontier Fighting

1. George Rogers Clark – fought and

controlled northwest frontier  Britain had

to spread out even more

slide7

D. War on the Waves

1. Britain – most powerful navy in world

2. Privateers – “legal” pirates

3. Famous Naval Battle:

The Bonhomme Richard v. Serapis

a. John Paul Jones – “ I have not yet begun to fight!”

4. Americans still had to win on land

iii the path to victory
III. The Path to Victory

The Path to Victory

A. Savannah and Charles Town

1. British invaded the South

a. Reasons: Loyalists, slaves, ports

2. Charles Town – worst American defeat

B. The Swamp Fox and Guerrilla Fighting

1. Gates (Am) v. Cornwallis (Br)

a. Gates defeated

2. Francis Marion – “Swamp Fox”

a. hit-and-run tactics

slide9

C. The Tide Turns

1. King’s Mountain – British were murdered

2. Nathaniel Greene – avoided a major battle

3. Opposition to the war in Britain grew

D. The End of the War

1. Yorktown (October 1781)

a. Washington v. Cornwallis

b. French navy cut off British navy

c. Cornwallis forced to surrender

slide10

E. Why the Americans Won

1. motivation,

popular support,

leadership,

allies,

distance,

troop strength

iv the legacy of the war
IV. The Legacy of the War

A. Costs of the War

1. Deaths: about 25000 Am, 10000 Br

2. Unpaid soldiers – got land instead

3. Debt - $27 million

4. Loyalists lost property and fled

slide12

B. The Treaty of Paris (1783)

1. US independent

2. Boundaries: Mississippi River,

Canada, Florida (ignored natives)

3. Fishing rights, repay debts,

return Loyalist property

4. Both sides broke treaty

slide13

D. Issues After the War

1. Liberty & Republicanism

2. State governments – constitutions

3. National government –

Articles of Confederation

4. Slavery began ending in the North,

(PA and MA), but continued in the South

5. Religious freedom

6. Would the states unite?