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An Introduction to Cooperative Learning Strategies

An Introduction to Cooperative Learning Strategies

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An Introduction to Cooperative Learning Strategies

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  1. An Introduction to Cooperative Learning Strategies Presented byJim Horwat

  2. Cooperative Learning… • improves interpersonal skills such as listening and problem solving • has the potential to socialize students to empathize with various points of view • encourages students to work together with classmates for a common cause • allows students to rise above differences that may otherwise divide them

  3. Five Models of Cooperative Learning

  4. Student Team Learning (STL) • Credited to Robert Slavin, Johns Hopkins University • Students divided into teams • Clear academic criteria established • Rewards such as bonus points, prizes or privileges — motivation • Strengthens student relationships • Students tend to feel more accepted and liked by their peers

  5. The Jigsaw technique • Developed by Elliot Aronson, University of California, SC • aka “Expert Groups” • Student serves as both “teacher and student” • “Home Groups” study together • Students tested individually Video: Aronson explaining Jigsaw

  6. Learning Together • Created by D.W. Johnson & R.T. Johnson • Groups of 4–5 students ideal • Teacher assigns the groups a project or goal • Strategy is versatile • Constructivist in nature • Enhances motivation, attitudes towards learning

  7. Group Investigation • Invented by Schlomo and YaelSharan, Tel Aviv University • aka “Collaborative Problem Solving” • Underplays external rewards • Emphasizes self-regulation • Ideal for social studies, math, and computer classes

  8. Group Investigation roles • Teacher: — provides indirect leadership — assists when needed • Students: — pick their own groups — agree on topics — assign roles — work out specifics — create presentations

  9. Think-Pair-share • Developed by Frank T. Lyman • Versatile, easy-to-use: 1). Teacher assigns individual students a theme to research 2). Students paired in small groups to share their research 3). Teacher initiates collaborative discussion / classroom debate Video: Think-pair-share explained

  10. Evidence-based Tips for Using Cooperative Learning Strategies

  11. “Cooperative learning is not simply a set of techniques. It is not simply the status quo except in groups. At its best, it is an entirely different way of approaching the act of learning.” — Alfie KohnAuthor of What To Look For In A Classroom

  12. Clearly establish goals for the groups • Communicate clear expectations — How will students be graded? — What happens if they are unprepared? — What determines students grades? • Introduce CL activities into classroom slowly • Become acquainted with class friendships and personalities

  13. Relate assignments to students’ abilities • Ensure students have prerequisite academic and social skills necessary for the assignment • Review all assignment criteria with students during class time

  14. Individual accountability is absolutely integral • A student who hides in the group and fails to contribute is a threat to the cooperative learning process • Design the rubric and grading process carefully • Avoid group grades

  15. “Grades that are given to whole groups don’t reflect an individual’s achievement or growth, and therefore can’t be used to document progress, provide feedback, or inform instructional decisions.” —Rick WormeliAuthor of Fair Isn’t Always Equal

  16. Group time is not a free period for teachers • Group time is not a chance for the teacher to catch up on their deskwork • Teachers need to monitor groups watchfully • Shy, socially awkward and autistic spectrum children are frequently targets for bullying during group work

  17. Refrain from frequently rearranging group members • Students need time to develop trust and acceptance of their classmates • Invite students to actively contribute to the developmental processes for future assignments

  18. Friendships can easily cloud educational objectives • When creating groups do not reinforce social cliques • Pay close attention to any students who socially withdraw from the group • An ideal group is a heterogeneous mixture of students with various academic, social, racial, and gender differences

  19. In cooperative learning groups, pairing high achievers with low achievers does not harm the learning and development of the high achievers. — D.W. Johnson & R.T. Johnson

  20. Help students recognize detrimental behaviors • The following behaviors interfere with success: — Monopolizing conversations — Criticizing group members — Going off on tangents — Getting consumed w/ details — Goofing off — Apathy / laziness

  21. Conflicts will happen • When people are playing with ideas or struggling to make decisions together, conflict will happen; and it should • Guide students to work through conflicts peacefully and on their own terms

  22. “Cooperation is a higher moral principle than competition” – Bryant McGill

  23. references Beals, Katherine P. (2010). Rethinking cooperative groups. Encounter, 23(4), 2-16. Henley, Martin. (2006). Classroom management: A proactive approach.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Kohn, Alfie. (1998). What to look for in a classroom. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Nastasi, Bonnie K., & Clements, Douglas H. (1991). Research on cooperative learning: Implications for practice. School Psychology Review, 20(1), 110-121. Ormrod, J. E. (2012). Essentials of educational psychology: Big ideas to guide effective teaching (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Putnam, Joanne, Markovchick, Kathryn, Johnson, David W., & Johnson, Roger T. (1996). Cooperative learning and peer acceptance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Social Psychology, 136(6), 741-752. Schul, James E. (2011). Revisiting an old friend: The practice and promise of cooperative learning for the twenty-first century. Social Studies, 102(2), 88-93. Vermette, Paul J. (1995). Cooperative learning teams: Eight suggestions for the novice user. Clearing House, 68(5), 278-81. Wormeli, Rick. (2006). Fair isn’t always equal: Assessing & grading in the differentiated classroom. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.