Foundations and Current Issues o f Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports. Ronald C. Martella, Ph.D. Overall Goal. Support students with and without disabilities in accessing general education settings and curricula in a successful manner. Unfortunately,.
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Foundations and Current Issues ofSchoolwide Positive Behavior Supports Ronald C. Martella, Ph.D.
Overall Goal • Support students with and without disabilities in accessing general education settings and curricula in a successful manner.
Unfortunately, • Students with disabilities are often segregated; if they are included in the general education environment, they are frequently not integrated into the classroom along with other students (Freeman et al., 2006; Sailor & Roger, 2005).
What Our Overriding Goal Should Be • “Elementary classrooms that are responsive to the diverse needs of all learners ensure that accommodations and modifications are made to enable students with disabilities, including those with significant needs, to participate in and benefit from general education classroom instruction…. Such efforts create an emotionally and socially supportive culture within the classroom in which all students feel safe, welcome, and integral as members of the learning community” (Salisbury & Strieker, 2004, p. 223).
The same holds true for middle schools (Fisher, Frey, & Kennedy, 2004) and high schools (Wehmeyer & Sailor, 2004). • Thus, we must consider the whole school climate if we are to best meet the needs of all students including those with intellectual and developmental disabilities. • We should use a PBIS perspective to determine how the learning environment can be altered to better supportevery student (Heflin & Alaimo, 2007; Martella, Nelson, Marchand-Martella, & O’Reilly, 2012). • Need: Multiple responses because students respond differently to their environments based on varying learning histories.
Key Elements to Meets this Goal The Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (SWPBIS) approach represents the integration of four key elements (Martella et al., 2012): • Systems approach (use of prevention-based practices, team-based problem solving, active administrative support and participation, data-based decision making, and a full continuum of behavior support to accommodate the range of intensities of problem behavior that occur in schools). • Science of human behavior (ABA) (behavior comes under the control of environmental factors and can be changed).
Improvement of the living and learning options available to students, their peers, and their families (consideration of all parts of a student’s day [before, during, and after school] and important social contexts [home, school, neighborhood, and community]; enhancement of prosocial behavior that affects living and learning opportunities (academic, family, social, work) (e.g., Nelson, Martella, & Marchand-Martella, 2002) [Ecobehavioral approach (EBA)]. • Evidence-based and practical interventions (use of assessment information and the teaching and support of adaptive behavior).
Foundations of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports:Science of Human Behavior (ABA)
Reward vs. Reinforcement • Reward • Something given to the student • Reinforcement • Presentation or removal of something as a consequence for behavior thatincreasesthe frequency of the behavior • Cannot be identified beforehand
Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement: (a) presentation of a stimulus, (b) contingent on a behavior, and (c) increases the frequency of the behavior. • Negative Reinforcement: (a) removal of a stimulus [aversive], (b) contingent on a behavior, and (c) increases the frequency of the behavior.
Punishment • Positive Punishment: (a) presentation of a stimulus [aversive], (b) contingent on a behavior, and (c) decreases the frequency of the behavior. • Negative Punishment: (a) removal of a stimulus [reinforcing], (b) contingent on a behavior, and (c) decreases the frequency of the behavior.
Why is it Important to Distinguish Between Positive and Negative Reinforcement?
We Learn for One of Two Reasons: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement
Reinforcement/Punishment Exercise • Ms. Smith sees that John is not working on his math but is doodling. She walks over to him and reprimands him for doodling. John continues to doodle. • Ms. Taylor sees that Twana is on-task while she is working on her math. Ms. Taylor approaches Twana and praises her for her work. Twana’s on-task performance decreases. • Joan provides attention to Susie every time she swears. Susie’s swearing increases. • Every time Brian refuses to complete his work, he is sent to time out; however, Brian’s behavior continues.
Ms. Jackson tells Steve that if he continues to get high marks on his assignments, she will recommend him for the “student of the year award.” Steve begins to get lower grades. • John wants to improve Julie’s sharing behavior. Therefore, he asks Julie what she would like to earn if she plays with other children properly. Julie indicates that she would like to earn an extra 5 minutes of recess. John agrees with her request and they set up a behavior contract. John believes that the extra 5 minutes of recess will be a reinforcer because it is something Julie has indicated she wants. • Ms. Jackson indicates that negative reinforcement is not working because John’s swearing behavior continues to get worse. Ms. Jackson says that this shows that negative reinforcement does not work.
Assumptions of the Functions of Behavior • Behavior is contextual. • Behavior serves a function. • Removal of the source of reinforcement will result in a reduction of the behavior. • Assessment information will aid in the development of an effective behavior plan.
Motivating Factors Linked to Student Behavior (Attention) • Attention (students have been reinforced in the past by attention from others) • Example 1: • Teacher is helping another student with a math problem (Antecedent) • Billy begins to hit his desk (Behavior) • Teacher goes over and reprimands Billy (Consequence) • Example 2: • Teacher is helping another student with a math problem (Antecedent) • Billy raises his hand (Behavior) • Teacher goes over and helps Billy with his work (Consequence)
Motivating Factors Linked to Student Behavior (Tangible/Activity) • Tangible/Activity (students have been reinforced in the past by obtaining a tangible object/activity) • Example 1: • Tommy is playing on the computer (Antecedent) • Sarah pushes Tommy away from the computer (Behavior) • Sarah gets access to the computer (Consequence) • Example 2: • Tommy is playing on the computer (Antecedent) • Sarah asks Tommy is she can play on the computer (Behavior) • Tommy lets Sarah play on the computer (Consequence)
Motivating Factors Linked to Student Behavior (Escape) • Escape (students have been reinforced in the past by escaping/avoiding an aversive event) • Example 1: • Teacher tells Susan to begin her seat work (Antecedent) • Susan tells teacher to do the work herself (Behavior) • Teacher sends Susan to time out (Consequence) • Example 2: • Teacher tells Susan to begin her seat work (Antecedent) • Susan asks teacher if she can begin work in 5 minutes (Behavior) • Teacher allows Susan to begin work in 5 minutes (Consequence)
Ecobehavioral Approach (EBA) • EBA stresses assessment of instructional environmental factors as well as other factors such as family and school support (Watson, Gable, & Greenwood, 2011). • EBA “provides a sequential picture of the interrelationships between environmental and instructional factors (e.g., classroom settings, type of instruction, and teacher behaviors) and a student’s opportunity to respond” (p. 335). • “The results of EBA studies show that failure to deliver effective instruction compounds the already negative effects of low socioeconomic, cultural, and familial factors that place many young children at risk” (p. 336). Critical Variables: School Culture Family
Risk Path to Antisocial Behavior(Sprague & Golly, 2005) • Family, Neighborhood, School, and Social Risk Factors Students are Exposed to: Modeling of aggression (harsh and inconsistent parenting); emotional, physical, and/or sexual abuse; poverty; neglect; drug and alcohol abuse by parents; negative parental attitudes toward schooling; parent criminality; exposure to media violence; family issues (e.g., death, divorce).
This exposure leads to: • Development of Maladaptive Behavioral Manifestations: Learned coercive interaction patterns, aggression toward peers, defiance of adults, and lack of school readiness and problem-solving skills.
These manifestations produce: • Negative Short-Term Outcomes: Peer and teacher rejection, low academic achievement, high levels of school disciplinary referrals, truancy, frequent movement to different schools, beginning drug and alcohol use, first arrest an an early age (i.e., less than 12 years of age).
These outcomes lead to: • Negative, Destructive, Long-Term Outcomes: High levels of school failure and dropout, delinquency, drug and alcohol use, gang activity, violent acts and criminality from a young age through adulthood, and higher injuries and death rates at younger ages.
Factors Contributing to Antisocial Behaviors • Community/Social • Home • School
Community • Antisocial network of peers. • Lack of prosocialengagements and modeling of maladaptive interaction styles. • “Social dynamics may serve as setting events that promote antisocial patterns that increase students’ risk for involvement in antisocial behavior” (Farmer, Lane, Lee, Hamm, & Lambert, 2012, p. 150). • “social structures and peer group processes contribute to the types of bullying and aggression that undergird antisocial behavior in the school context” (Farmer et al., p. 150). • Social interchanges • Social network membership and social structures • Social roles and reputations • Inclusionary and exclusionary peer group processes Need: Enhance teachers’ general awareness of classroom social structures to increase their skill in creating “contexts that promote students’ productive behavior and reduce problematic peer affiliations and negative perceptions of the peer environment” (Farmer et al., p. 156).
Home • Inconsistent management. • Reactive discipline. • Lack of monitoring.
Understanding and Supporting Families • Stressors (e.g., financial—money management, job skills) • Child management/interaction skills (use of coercion) • Emotional/attachment issues See Simpson, Peterson, and Smith (2011).
Statistics on Problem Behavior • We can reliably predict which children will be oppositional in school by age 3. • The single best predictor of delinquency in adolescence is behavior difficulties exhibited in elementary school. • For those students who have more severe problem behaviors, the problem behaviors do not simply disappear over time. • The stability of aggressive behavior over a 10-year period is about the same as the stability of intelligence over the same time period. The stability of IQ scores is approximately .70 while the stability of aggressive behavior is .60 to .80. • If problem behavior persists after 3rd grade, the likelihood of making successful changes later in a student’s academic career diminishes radically. • After 3rd grade, behavior problems should be viewed as a chronic problem. Walker, H. M. (1995).
Meaningful Differencesin the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children (Hart & Risley, 1996) • Studied 42 families: --13 higher SES children --23 middle/lower SES children --6 low SES children • Observed every month for 1 hour for 2.5 years. • Observations began when children were 7-9 months of age.
Differences in Vocabulary at 36 months • Children from higher SES families (1200 words). • Children from middle SES families (800 words). • Children from low SES families (580 words).
Actual Differences in Quantity of Words Heard • In a typical hour, the average child would hear: High SES family 2,153 words Middle SES family 1,251 words Low SES family 616 words
Cumulative Language Experience in a Typical Week • High SES 215,000 words of language experience • Middle SES 125,000 words of language experience • Low SES 62,000 words of language experience
Differences in Quantity of Interaction • In a typical hour, the average child would hear: --High SES family 32 affirmations 5 prohibitions --Middle SES family 12 affirmations 7 prohibitions --Low SES family 5 affirmations 11 prohibitions
Cumulative Language Experience at Age 4 • High SES 45,000,000 words 560,000 more instances of encouraging feedback • Middle SES 26,000,000 words 100,000 more instances of encouraging feedback • Low SES 13,000,000 words 125,000 more instances of discouraging feedback
School • Management procedures • Academic instruction
One of the Most Critical Aspects of Management is the Creation of a Positive School/Classroom Climate
Unfortunately… • Teachers allow over 90% of all appropriate behavior to go unrecognized. • Teachers are two to five times more likely to recognize inappropriate behavior than they are to recognize appropriate behavior. • Teacher attention to inappropriate behavior is typically of such a nature as to increase the probability that the behavior will be strengthened--will occur with regularity. Latham (1992)