AOGCMs. Equations involved in the construction of General Circulation Models (GCMs). Structure of a General Circulation Model (GCM) Models with coupled Atmospheric and Oceanic layers are termed AOGCMs. Time step involved in integration. Where x is the grid size, c is the
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Circulation Models (GCMs).
Models with coupled
Oceanic layers are
Time step involved
Where x is the
grid size, c is the
Mean Global temperature trend since 1850
It is necessary to check the derived temperature history using
Independent temperature proxies:
over the past few
aerosols, etc. for the next century are essential for
the prediction of anthropogenic effects on the
global and regional climates.
The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change) has, over the years prepared a number of
such scenarios. In 1992 it released the IS92
scenarios. In 2000, the IPCC proposed a number
of new scenarios, known as the SRES scenarios
Storylines must be quantified in terms of population growth,
economic growth, energy supplies and usage, mix of
renewable/fossil/nuclear fuels, technology development,
Projections of atmospheric CO2 concentrations
Changes in ocean pH and Aragonite saturation. Aragonite is a meta-stable form
of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate will dissolve at levels below 100%
saturation, removing an important sink of dissolved carbon in the surface ocean.
Sea rise due to thermal expansion a meta-stable form
Projections of total sea-level rise due to all causes a meta-stable form
Simulations in atmospheric CO a meta-stable form2 concentrations
under various emission reduction scenarios.