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Evidence-Based Curriculum. Exploring. Housekeeping. Sign In Sheets at each table & on Line Materials Wi Fi Access Timelines Breaks Lunch Restroom Location Turn cell phones to manner mode Other?. Essential Components. Research-Based Curriculum and Instruction On-going Assessment

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Sign In Sheets at each table & on Line


Wi Fi Access




Restroom Location

Turn cell phones to manner mode


Essential components
Essential Components

Research-Based Curriculumand Instruction

On-going Assessment

Collaborative Teaming

Data-based Decision Making and Problem Solving

Fidelity of Implementation

On-going Training and Staff Development

Community and Family Involvement


Reading programs in a three tier model k 3
Reading Programs in a Three-Tier Model K - 3

Our focus for today’s training

Outcomes for the day
Outcomes for the Day

Participants will be able to:

  • Define evidence-based curriculum

  • Understand how to find out if curriculum is evidence-based

  • Review curriculum to determine if it is research-based

  • Understand the ‘big ideas’ of effective instruction and instructional design for reading, math, and behavior

  • Evaluate your current curriculum

  • Recognize commonalities between evidence-based curriculum

Evidence based what does that mean
Evidence-Based—What does that mean?

  • The term evidence-based practice (EBP) or empirically-supported treatment (EST) refers to preferential use of interventions for which systematic empirical research has provided evidence of statistically significant effectiveness as treatments for specific problems.

    Definition from the medical field

Research based curriculum
Research-Based Curriculum

  • The notion of evidence based practice has also had an influence in the field of education. Here, some commentators have suggested that the lack of any conspicuous progress is attributable to practice resting in the unconnected and noncumulative experience of thousands of individual teachers, each re-inventing the wheel and failing to learn from hard scientific evidence about 'what works'.

Research based curriculum1
Research-Based Curriculum

  • Evidence-Based

    • Previous research

    • Ongoing local evaluation

    • Alignment with state standards

  • Effective Programming (core or intervention)

    • A) the procedures are clearly articulated

    • B) a process is in place to ensure that procedures are followed

    • C) the correct measures are used to evaluate outcomes that result from the intervention delivery

    • D) an appropriate means of comparing student progress both with and without the intervention is in place.

Research based curriculum2
Research-Based Curriculum

Teachers do not

Have the time to

Create the program!

  • We have evidence that curriculum matters

  • We need excellent materials

    • Instructional Content Reading (PA, P, F, V, C)

    • Math (Number & Operations, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement & Data Analysis)

    • Behavior

Instructional design
Instructional Design

  • Systematic and Explicit

    • Explicit instructional strategies

    • Coordinated instructional sequences

    • Ample practice opportunities

    • Aligned student materials

      Empirical Evidence

What is a core reading math program
What is a Core Reading/Math Program?

  • A reading/math program that is used to help guide both initial and differentiated instruction in the regular classroom. It supports instruction in the broad range of reading skills (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension) or math (numbers/operations, geometry, algebra, data analysis/measurement) required to become a skilled reader/mathematician. It contains teacher’s manuals with explicit lesson plans, and provides reading/math and practice materials for students.

Classroom organization
Classroom Organization

  • Whole Group Instruction

  • Small (flexible) group instruction

  • Independent Student Centers

    • Academically engaged

    • Teacher-Led Center

    • Accountability

      -Group, Pair, Cooperative, Individual

Flexible groups
Flexible Groups

  • Keep high risk group sizes small (5-7 as a maximum).

  • For students not making adequate progress in a group of 5-7, it is critical to reduce the group size.

  • Monitor high risk student progress more frequently in order to make instructional changes, small group changes, and to accelerate learning.

  • It is important to work with each small group differently based on instructional need.

  • Consider attitudes, behaviors, and work ethics when forming and modifying groups.

Curriculum instruction implemented with high fidelity
Curriculum & Instruction Implemented with High Fidelity

  • Curriculum and Interventions are only as good as the level of implementation

  • Instructional methods to optimize program effectiveness:

    • Implement the program everyday with fidelity

    • Deliver the instruction clearly, consistently, and explicitly.

    • Provide scaffold support to students

    • Provide opportunities for practice with corrective feedback

Scientifically based reading programs

Instructional Content

Phonemic Awareness





Instructional Design

Explicit Instructional Strategies

Coordinated Instructional Sequences

Ample Practice Opportunities

Aligned Student Materials

Scientifically Based Reading Programs

Scientifically based math programs

Instructional Content

Number & Operations



Measurement & Data Analysis

Instructional Design

Explicit Instructional Strategies

Coordinated Instructional Sequences

Ample Practice Opportunities

Aligned Student Materials

Scientifically Based Math Programs

Scientifically based behavior programs

Instructional Content

Statement of purpose

Clearly define expected behaviors (rules)

Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors

Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors

Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors

Instructional Design

Explicit Instructional Strategies

Coordinated Instructional Sequences

Ample Practice Opportunities

Scientifically Based Behavior Programs

Instructional content
Instructional Content

  • Core elements of scientifically based reading programs include explicit and systematic instruction in the following:

    –phonemic awareness




    –comprehension strategies

Phonemic awareness pa research instruction
Phonemic Awareness (PA) Research & Instruction

  • PA improves word reading, spelling, and comprehension

  • Poor readers who enter first grade with weak PA are most likely to be the poor readers in fourth grade

  • Auditory Activities

  • Needs to follow the developmental hierarchy of phonological awareness

Five levels of phonological awareness
Five Levels of Phonological Awareness

  • Sentence Segmenting

  • Rhyming & Alliteration

  • Syllable Blending & Segmenting

  • Onset-Rime Blending & Segmenting

  • Phoneme Blending & Segmenting


  • An understanding of the alphabetic relationship between phonemes and graphemes—the sound/symbol relationship.

Phonics research
Phonics Research

  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction

    –is more effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction

    –significantly improves children’s reading comprehension

Phonics instruction
Phonics Instruction

  • Systematic

    pre-specified sequence of letter–sound correspondences taught in a logical order (e.g., most common sounds taught first; progresses from simple to more complex; once a few letter sounds are learned, students are taught a decoding strategy; students apply recently learned phonics to reading connected text)

  • Explicit

    taught directly (teacher modeling, providing guided practice, and independent practice)


  • The ability to read text



    –with proper expression

Fluency research
Fluency Research

  • Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.

Fluency instruction
Fluency Instruction

  • Articulate the importance & provide modeling

  • Determine Reading Levels

  • Oral reading with feedback

  • Variety of research based strategies

    –Repeated Readings, Timed, Partner

  • Monitor fluency progress


  • The knowledge of the meanings and pronunciation of words that are used in oral and written language.

Vocabulary research
Vocabulary Research

  • Can be developed

    –Directly (teach important, difficult, and useful words)


  • Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to overall reading comprehension.

  • The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as reading material becomes more complex and the vocabulary becomes more extensive.

Vocabulary instruction
Vocabulary Instruction

  • Selection of words to teach

    –Unknown, critical to understanding the text, likely to encounter in the future

  • Teach word learning strategies

    –How to use word parts to determine meaning of words

  • Provide multiple exposures to words

  • Encourage independent, wide reading


  • The ability to make sense of text and to monitor for understanding.

Comprehension research
Comprehension Research

  • Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that

    –is explicit, or direct

    –helps readers use specific comprehension strategies

Comprehension instruction
Comprehension Instruction

  • Monitoring comprehension (promoting metacognition)

  • Using graphic and semantic organizers

    –e.g., teaching the use of a Venn diagram to compare and contrast 2 characters from a story

  • Main Idea

  • Summarizing

  • Text Structure


  • As a team, discuss the perceived strengths and weakness of your core reading program in relation to the 5 areas of reading.

Scientifically based reading programs1

Instructional Content

Phonemic Awareness





Instructional Design

Explicit Instructional Strategies

Coordinated Instructional Sequences

Ample Practice Opportunities

Aligned Student Materials

Scientifically Based Reading Programs

Explicit instruction
Explicit Instruction

1.Teacher Models and Explains

2.Teacher provides Guided Practice

•Students practice what the teacher modeled and the teacher provides prompts and feedback

3.Teacher provides Supported Application

•Students apply the skill as the teacher scaffolds instruction

4.Independent Practice

Coordinated instructional sequences
Coordinated Instructional Sequences

  • Phonemic Awareness:

    –Students practice orally segmenting and blending words with /m/

  • Phonics:

    –Students learn to connect /m/ with the letter m

  • Fluency & Comprehension:

    –reading word lists that include words that have /m/ and other previously learned letter sounds

    –reading decodable passages (using repeated readings) that include many words with /m/

  • Spelling

    –spelling words that include /m/ and other letter sounds previously learned

Ample practice opportunities
Ample Practice Opportunities

  • Practice should follow in a logical relationship with what has just been taught in the program.

  • Once skills are internalized, students are provided with opportunities to independently apply previously learned information (e.g., at student learning centers).

Aligned student materials
Aligned Student Materials

  • The content of student materials (texts, activities, homework, manipulatives, etc.) work coherently with classroom instruction to reinforce the acquisition of specific skills in reading or math.

  • Student aligned materials include a rich selection of coordinated student materials at various readability levels to help build skills through practice.

Summarizing instructional design
Summarizing Instructional Design

  • Explicit Instructional Strategies

  • Coordinated Instructional Sequences

  • Ample Practice Opportunities

  • Aligned Student Materials

Instruction content and design
Instruction Content and Design

  • Resources for research-based programs

    • Core programming and intervention materials

  • Time for staff development

    • Training for programs

    • Training for effective instructional practices

    • Time for on-going dialogue

      You cannot have fidelity unless you have done the training and have on-going support.

Evidence based instructional strategies
Evidence-Based Instructional Strategies

David Allsopp

  • Explicit

  • Systematic

  • Cognitive strategy instruction

  • Visuals/graphic organizers

  • Verbal elaboration

  • Multiple response opportunities

  • Structured peer mediated instruction

  • Progress monitoring

Instructional strategies
Instructional Strategies

David Allsopp

1) Explicit

  • Breaking down a task into small steps

  • Administering probes

  • Administering feedback repeatedly

  • Providing a pictorial or diagram presentation

  • Allowing independent practice and individually paced instruction

  • Breaking the instruction down into simpler phases

  • Instructing in a small group

  • Teacher modeling a skill

  • Providing set materials at a rapid pace

  • Providing individual child instruction

  • Teacher asking questions

  • Teacher presenting the new (novel) materials

Authentic Contexts

Interest Inventory

Instructional strategies1
Instructional Strategies

2) Systematic

Purposeful, planned learning opportunities

Sequential progression

Vertical alignment

Big ideas

Utilizing Common Core Standards

David Allsopp

Instructional strategies2
Instructional Strategies

3) Cognitive Strategy Instruction




David Allsopp

Explicitly taught

Accurate and efficient procedures for specific situations

Make them memorable

Incorporate student thinking and actions

Provide ample practice opportunities to master

Cue sheets/posted in classroom

Monitor and reinforce use of the strategy

"Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally":

Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication/Division, Addition/Subtraction

Instructional strategies3
Instructional Strategies

4) Visuals/Graphic Organizers

Teacher created/student created

Systematic instruction using graphic organizers

Displayed around the room

On desks/notebooks/folders

Access to them

David Allsopp

Instructional strategies4
Instructional Strategies

5) Verbal Elaboration

Systematic planning



Why? How?

Not just one way to solve

David Allsopp


Instructional strategies5
Instructional Strategies

6) Multiple Response Opportunities

Center format

Experience the concept (C-R-A)

Appropriate level

Self-checking materials


Whole group responses

David Allsopp

Instructional strategies6
Instructional Strategies

7) Structured Peer Mediated Instruction

Cooperative learning

Think, pair, share

Partners/small group

David Allsopp

Well planned High structure

Explicit directions Teach/model group procedures

Teach/model behavior Develop materials to math skill/concept

All members actively engaged

Teacher monitoring

Specific corrective feedback

Specific positive reinforcement

Provide closure

Best evidence encyclopedia
Best Evidence Encyclopedia

Examples of structured peer mediated instruction from BEE

  • Class wide peer tutoring

  • Peer Assisted Learning Strategies

  • Power Teaching Mathematics

  • TAI Math

Instructional strategies7
Instructional Strategies

8) Progress Monitoring/Data Based Decision Making

P.M. is conducted

P.M. is utilized to drive instruction

Regularly scheduled P.M. meetings

Involved parties involved?

David Allsopp

Do something

with the data!

Formative Assessment

Instructional strategies math
Instructional Strategies—Math

  • Summary—consider your current math instructional template and the strategies we have just discussed. Compare and contrast.

Your research
Your Research

  • Look critically at your product

  • Examine the data—Is this product meeting the needs of our students?

  • Do you have ‘gaps’ to fill?

What works clearinghouse

Selecting Materials

What Works Clearinghouse

  • U.S. Department of Education-Institute of Education Sciences

  • Reviews and reports on existing research

  • Research must meet particular standards

  • Rating categories

    • Positive effects

    • Potentially positive effects

    • No discernible effects

    • Potentially negative effects

    • Negative effects


Best evidence encyclopedia1
Best Evidence Encyclopedia

  • http://www.bestevidence.org

  • Johns Hopkins University School of Education

  • Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education

Center on instruction
Center on Instruction

  • http://www.centeroninstruction.org/index.cfm

  • Instruction only

  • Part of Comprehensive Center Network

  • Funded by Department of Education


  • Primary prevention is significant in that it moves the structural framework of each educational unit from reactive approaches to proactive systems change performance. This effort cohesively unites all the adults in using 1) common language

    2) common practices

    3) consistent application of positive and negative reinforcement. 


School wide positive behavior supports core principles
School Wide Positive Behavior Supports—Core Principles

  • You can effectively teach appropriate behavior to all children

  • Intervene early

  • Use a multi-tier model of service delivery

  • Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions to the extent available

  • Monitor student progress to inform interventions

  • Use data to make decisions

  • Use assessments for three different purposes


Universal strategies school wide
Universal Strategies: School-Wide

Essential Features

  • Statement of purpose

  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)

  • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors

  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors

  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors

  • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making (swis.org)

  • Family Awareness and Involvement


Wwc s character behavior programs
WWC’s Character/Behavior Programs

  • Building Decision Skills

  • Caring School Community

  • Connect with Kids

  • Lesson in Character

  • Lions Quest—Skills for Adolescence

  • Positive Action

  • Too Good for Drugs and Violence

Behavior resources
Behavior Resources

  • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/behavorial-resources

  • http://www.pbis.org/default.aspx

    Other Web Resources

  • http://www.rti4success.org/

  • www.rtinetwork.org

  • http://www.bhs.k12.oh.us/RtI/RTI-InterventionBank.pdf

Core programs
Core Programs

Our focus for today has been tier I programming. Your homework for next time is to begin to look critically at your reading, math, or behavior core program and see what pieces need to be improved.