Core Concepts: • 1. Psychic Determinism • 2. Unconscious Motivation • 3. Child development • 4. Conflict
Sub-Theories: • Economic/Drive Theory ( Dual Instinct ) • Topographic ( UNC, Preconscious, CON ) • Structural ( ID, EGO, SUPEREGO )
Instincts: • Eros (libido) • Thanatos (death/aggression) • Love and Death (Creation and Destruction)
Cathexis (investment of psychic energy) • Fixation (getting stuck)
Structures of the Mind • Id instinctual gratification Pleasure Principle / Primary Process • Ego reality testing Reality Principle / Secondary Process • Superego
Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses Id and the constraints of the Ego & Superego.
Psychosexual Development • Oral (0-18 mo.) Pleasure zone: mouth; Activities: sucking, mouthing, biting etc. • Anal (18-36 mo.) Pleasure zone: anus Activity: elimination & retention of feces (control) • Phallic (3-6 yo) Oedipus Complex
Latency • Genital • Personality fixed by the end of Phallic stage
Anxiety and Defense • Repression • Defense Mechanisms Examples: Projection, Displacement, Reaction Formation, etc.
Character Fixed patterns of conflict and defense.
Criticism of Freud Overemphasis on unconscious processes Overemphasis on “sexual” development Neglect of interpersonal environment and social learning Overemphasis on early development Difficult to operationalize and test Biased by era and culture
Post-Freudian Theories Evolution of the theory • Move away from primary focus on instincts and more toward ego capacities • Greater emphasis on social/interpersonal relations • Development as on-going process Similarities: Dynamic UNC, Conflict, Stages of Development
Jung Psychic energy(not necessarily sexual, self-actualization) • Collective UNC (transpersonal, inherited) • Archetypes (myth, art, culture, religion, etc.) • Anima/Animus • Introversion/Extraversion
Adler • “Individual Psychology” unique individuality and unified strivings of the whole person • Ego functions • Social environment • Inferiority/Superiority • Compensatory Motivation • Inferiority Complex
Erikson • Psychosocial Development 8 stages, development throughout the lifespan • Crises 1.Trust 2. Autonomy 5. Identity 6. Intimacy
OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY • Interpersonal relations and the development of the SELF • Internalized “object” representations • Fundamental role of ATTACHMENT as primary need
Klein Stages: • 1. (Schizoid) Fusion “Mommy and I are one” • 2. (Paranoid) Good bad splitting similar to “bi-polar representations” (Kernberg) • 3. (Depressive) Integration ambivalence & compromise • “good enough mothering”
Attachment • MAHLER, BOWLBY, AINSWORTH, KERNBERG etc. • responsive parenting • secure/anxious/avoidant attachments
Kohut • SELF PSYCHOLOGY • Self-objects • Functions • Mirroring
Horney • psychosocial and sociocultural factors • “womb envy”
ASSESSMENT • tip of the iceberg • ambiguous stimuli
Projective Testing • Rorschach • TAT Murray’s Needs “higher order motives” • Interrater/Interjudge reliability
Empirical evidence • Criticism • superficial • isolated • artificial
Empirical evidence 1. UNC processing Automaticity 2. UNC motivation Nisbet & Wilson (unconscious behavior) Silverman (subliminal activation) 3. Repression Mixed results Repressed Memory Debate
Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.
Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).