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Psychoanalytic Theory

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  1. Psychoanalytic Theory

  2. Core Concepts: • 1. Psychic Determinism • 2. Unconscious Motivation • 3. Child development • 4. Conflict

  3. Sub-Theories: • Economic/Drive Theory ( Dual Instinct ) • Topographic ( UNC, Preconscious, CON ) • Structural ( ID, EGO, SUPEREGO )

  4. Instincts: • Eros (libido) • Thanatos (death/aggression) • Love and Death (Creation and Destruction)

  5. Cathexis (investment of psychic energy) • Fixation (getting stuck)

  6. Structures of the Mind • Id instinctual gratification Pleasure Principle / Primary Process • Ego reality testing Reality Principle / Secondary Process • Superego

  7. Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses Id and the constraints of the Ego & Superego.

  8. Psychosexual Development • Oral (0-18 mo.) Pleasure zone: mouth; Activities: sucking, mouthing, biting etc. • Anal (18-36 mo.) Pleasure zone: anus Activity: elimination & retention of feces (control) • Phallic (3-6 yo) Oedipus Complex

  9. Latency • Genital • Personality fixed by the end of Phallic stage

  10. Anxiety and Defense • Repression • Defense Mechanisms Examples: Projection, Displacement, Reaction Formation, etc.

  11. Character Fixed patterns of conflict and defense.

  12. Criticism of Freud Overemphasis on unconscious processes Overemphasis on “sexual” development Neglect of interpersonal environment and social learning Overemphasis on early development Difficult to operationalize and test Biased by era and culture

  13. Post-Freudian Theories Evolution of the theory • Move away from primary focus on instincts and more toward ego capacities • Greater emphasis on social/interpersonal relations • Development as on-going process Similarities: Dynamic UNC, Conflict, Stages of Development

  14. Jung Psychic energy(not necessarily sexual, self-actualization) • Collective UNC (transpersonal, inherited) • Archetypes (myth, art, culture, religion, etc.) • Anima/Animus • Introversion/Extraversion

  15. Adler • “Individual Psychology” unique individuality and unified strivings of the whole person • Ego functions • Social environment • Inferiority/Superiority • Compensatory Motivation • Inferiority Complex

  16. Erikson • Psychosocial Development 8 stages, development throughout the lifespan • Crises 1.Trust 2. Autonomy 5. Identity 6. Intimacy

  17. OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY • Interpersonal relations and the development of the SELF • Internalized “object” representations • Fundamental role of ATTACHMENT as primary need

  18. Klein Stages: • 1. (Schizoid) Fusion “Mommy and I are one” • 2. (Paranoid) Good bad splitting similar to “bi-polar representations” (Kernberg) • 3. (Depressive) Integration ambivalence & compromise • “good enough mothering”

  19. Attachment • MAHLER, BOWLBY, AINSWORTH, KERNBERG etc. • responsive parenting • secure/anxious/avoidant attachments

  20. Kohut • SELF PSYCHOLOGY • Self-objects • Functions • Mirroring

  21. Horney • psychosocial and sociocultural factors • “womb envy”

  22. ASSESSMENT • tip of the iceberg • ambiguous stimuli

  23. Projective Testing • Rorschach • TAT Murray’s Needs “higher order motives” • Interrater/Interjudge reliability

  24. Empirical evidence • Criticism • superficial • isolated • artificial

  25. Empirical evidence 1. UNC processing Automaticity 2. UNC motivation Nisbet & Wilson (unconscious behavior) Silverman (subliminal activation) 3. Repression Mixed results Repressed Memory Debate

  26. Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.

  27. Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).