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Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2 nd ed. Chapter 19: Infectious Diseases Affecting the Nervous System. 19.1 The Nervous System and Its Defenses. Two component parts to the nervous system CNS PNS Three important functions Sensory Integrative Motor

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Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2 nd ed.

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    1. Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed. Chapter 19: Infectious Diseases Affecting the Nervous System

    2. 19.1 The Nervous System and Its Defenses • Two component parts to the nervous system • CNS • PNS • Three important functions • Sensory • Integrative • Motor • Brain and spinal cord: made up of neurons, both surrounded by bone, encased with meninges • PNS: cranial and spinal nerves

    3. Defenses of the Nervous System • Mainly structural • Bony casings • Cushion of CSF • Blood-brain barrier • Immunologically privileged site

    4. Figure 19.1

    5. Figure 19.2

    6. 19.2 Normal Biota of the Nervous System • No normal biota • Any microorganisms in the PNS or CNS is a deviation from the healthy state

    7. 19.3 Nervous System Diseases Caused by Microorganisms • Inflammation of the meninges • Many different microorganisms can cause an infection • More serious forms caused by bacteria • If it is suspected, lumbar puncture is performed to obtain CSF • Typical symptoms: headache, painful or stiff neck, fever, and usually an increased number of white blood cells in the CSF

    8. Neisseria meningitides • Gram-negative diplococcic lined up side by side • Commonly known as meningococcus • Often associated with epidemic forms of meningitis • Causes the most serious form of acute meningitis

    9. Figure 19.3

    10. Streptococcus pneumonia • Referred to as the pneumococcus • Most frequent cause of community-acquired meningitis • Very severe • Does not cause the petechiae associated with meningococcal meningitis- useful diagnostically • Small gram-positive flattened coccus that appears in end-to-end pairs

    11. Haemophilus influenza • Tiny gram-negative pleomorphic rods • Sensitive to drying, temperature extremes, and disinfectants • Causes severe meningitis • Symptoms: fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and neurological impairment

    12. Listeria monocytogenes • Gram-positive • Ranges in morphology from coccobacilli to long filaments in palisades formation • Resistant to cold, heat, salt, pH extremes, and bile • In normal adults- mild infection with nonspecific symptoms of fever, diarrhea, and sore throat • In elderly or immunocompromised patients, fetuses, or neonates- affects the brain and meninges and results in septicemia

    13. Cryptococcus neoformans • Fungus • More chronic form of meningitis • More gradual onset of symptoms • Sometime classified as a meningoencephalitis • Headache- most common symptom; also nausea and stiff neck • Spherical to ovoid shape and a large capsule

    14. Figure 19.7

    15. Coccidioides immitis • At 25°C forms a moist white to brown colony with abundant, branching, septate hyphae • Hyphae fragment into arthroconidia at maturity • Usually begins with pulmonary infection

    16. Figure 19.9

    17. Figure 19.10

    18. Viruses • Aseptic meningitis • Majority of cases occur in children • 90% caused by enteroviruses • Generally milder than bacterial or fungal meningitis

    19. Neonatal Meningitis • Almost always a result of infection transmitted by the mother, either in utero or during passage through the birth canal • Two most common causes • Streptococcus agalactiae • Group B strep • Escherichia coli

    20. Meningoencephalitis • Encephalitis: inflammation of the brain • Two microorganisms cause meningoencephalitis (both amoebas) • Naegleria fowleri • Acanthamoeba

    21. Naegleria fowleri • Small, flask-shaped amoeba • Forms a rounded, thick-walled, uninucleate cyst • Infection begins when amoebas are forced into human nasal passages as a result of swimming, diving, or other aquatic activities • Amoeba burrows in to the nasal mucosa, multiplies, and migrates into the brain and surrounding structure • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)

    22. Acanthamoeba • Large, amoeboid trophozoite with spiny pseudopods and a double-walled cyst • Invades broken skin, the conjunctiva, and occasionally the lungs and urogenital epithelia • Granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis (GAM)

    23. Acute Encephalitis • Encephalitis can present as acute or subacute • Always a serious condition • Acute: almost always caused by viral infection • Signs and symptoms vary but may include behavior changes, confusion, decreased consciousness, seizures

    24. Arborviruses • Borne by insects; most feed on the blood of hosts • Common outcome: acute fever, often accompanied by rash

    25. Herpes Simplex Virus • Can cause encephalitis in newborns born to HSV-positive mothers • Prognosis is poor

    26. JC Virus • Infection is common • In patients with immune dysfunction, cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)- uncommon but generally fatal

    27. Subacute Encephalitis • Symptoms take longer to show up and are less striking • Most common cause: Toxoplasma

    28. Toxoplasma gondii • Flagellated parasite • Most cases go unnoticed • In the fetus and immunodeficient people, severe and often fatal • Asymptomatic or marked by mild symptoms such as sore throat, lymph node enlargement, and low-grade fever

    29. Figure 19.13

    30. Measles Virus: SubacuteSclerosingPanencephalitis (SSPE) • Occurs years after an initial measles episode • Seems to be caused by direct viral invasion of neural tissue

    31. Prions • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs): neurodegenerative diseases with long incubation periods but rapid progression once they begin • Human TSEs • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) • Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker disease • Fatal familial insomnia

    32. Figure 19.14

    33. Rabies • Slow, progressive zoonotic disease • Characterized by fatal encephalitis • Average incubation time: 1-2 months or more • Prodromal phase begins with fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and other nonspecific symptoms • Furious rabies • Periods of agitation, disorientation, seizures, and twitching • Spasms in the neck and pharyngeal muscles lead to hydrophobia • Dumb rabies • Patient is not hyperactive but is paralyzed, disoriented and stuporous • Both forms progress to the coma phase, resulting in death

    34. Poliomyelitis • Acute enteroviral infection of the spinal cord • Can cause neuromuscular paralysis • Often affects small children • Most infections are contained as short-term, mild viremia • Some develop mild nonspecific symptoms of fever, headache, nausea, sore throat, and myalgia • Then spreads along specific pathways in the spinal cord and brain • Neurotropic: the virus infiltrates the motor neurons of the anterior horn of the spinal cord • Nonparalytic: invasion but not destruction of nervous tissue • Paralytic: various degrees of flaccid paralysis • Rare cases: bulbar poliomyelitis

    35. Tetanus • Also known as lockjaw • Clostridium tetani • Gram-positive, spore-forming rod • Releases a powerful neurotoxin, tetanospasmin, that binds to target sites on peripheral motor neurons, spinal cord and brain, and in the sympathetic nervous system • Toxin blocks the inhibition of muscle contraction • Results in spastic paralysis • First symptoms : clenching of the jaw, followed in succession by extreme arching of the back, flexion of the arms, and extension of the legs • Risussardonicus

    36. Figure 19.21

    37. Figure 19.22

    38. Botulism • Intoxication associated with eating poorly preserved foods • Can also occur as a true infection • Three major forms • Food-borne botulism • Ingestion of preformed toxin • Infant botulism • Entrance of botulinum toxin into the bloodstream • Wound botulism • Entrance of botulinum toxin into the bloodstream

    39. Symptoms: double vision, difficulty in swallowing, dizziness; later symptoms include descending muscular paralysis and respiratory compromise • Clostridium botulinum • Spore forming anaerobe • Releases an exotoxin

    40. African Sleeping Sickness • Trypanosomabrucei • Also called trypanosomiasis • Affects the lymphatics and areas surrounding blood vessels • Usually a long asymptomatic period precedes onset of symptoms • Symptoms include intermittent fever, enlarged spleen, swollen lymph nodes, and joint pain • Central nervous system is affected with personality and behavioral changes that progress to lassitude and sleep disturbances

    41. Figure 19.24