The Department of Defense (DoD) & the National Command Authority
National Command Authority (Chain of Command) • The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. military iaw the U.S. Constitution. • The current command structure of the Department of Defense is defined by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 , signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 1 October 1986. • The Act reworked the command structure of the United States military, introducing the most sweeping changes to the Department since it was established in the National Security Act of 1947.
National Command Authority (continued) • Under the act, the chain of command runs from the President of the United States, through the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commanders (COCOM) who command all military forces within their area of responsibility. UNITS: Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, & Coast Guard
National Command Authority (continued) • The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) & the military serviceChiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines) are responsible for readiness of the U.S. military and serve as the President's military advisers, but are NOT in the chain of command. The CJCS is by law the highest ranking military officer in the United States. • Each military service is responsible for organizing, training & equipping military units for the commanders of the various Unified Combatant Commands (combatant commanders; COCOM).
National Security Council (Presidents Advisors) • The National Security Councilwas created in 1947 by the National Security Act. • The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President for considering national security & foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors & Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. • Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the president on national securityand foreign policies. • The Council also serves as the president's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. • The U.S. Council has counterparts in the national security councils of many other nations.
Run by “Civilians” with some military
Secretary of Defense The Secretary of Defense by statute also exercises authority, direction & control over the three (3) Service Secretaries (civilian) of the Military Departments Ashton Cartersince Feb 15, 2015 The HonorableEric K. FanningACTING: November 3, 2015 Ray Mabussince: June 18, 2009 Deborah Lee Jamessince: December 20, 2013
Military Service Chiefs (of Staff) GEN Mark A. Milley Gen Mark A. Welsh IIIADM John M. Richardson Gen Robert B. Neller
Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) * The Military Service Chiefs (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines) report to the Service Secretaries, NOT the CJCS! NEW
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) General Paul J. Selva (USAF)since: July 31, 2015 (new) Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Joseph Dunford (USMC) Since: September 25, 2015 (new) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) GEN AmosADM GreenertADM WinnefeldGEN DempseyGEN Odierno GEN Welsh GEN Grass USMC USN VCJCS CJCS USA USAF NGB Photo is from 2014
Chief, National Guard Bureau (NGB) - JCS Beginning in January 2012, the top National Guard Officer (Chief, National Guard Bureau) became a new member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. This was created by a provision in the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act, (NDAA) signed into law Dec. 31 by President Obama, which added the National Guard leader to the nation’s highest military advisory group. The first Chief of NGB to serve as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was Air Force General Craig McKinley. The addition of the top Guard officer to the Joint Chiefs of Staff has been hailed by Guard historians as the “most significant development” since the Militia Act of 1903 codified the modern day dual-status structure of the Guard, according to a statement from the Guard Bureau.
Chief, NGB – JCS Debate During the hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee, the current 4-star generals making up the Joint Chiefs of Staff (x6) voiced opposition to the proposal, saying it would create needless confusion and reduce their authority. “There is no compelling military need for this change,” Army GEN Martin Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs, said at the time. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta also opposed the measure, telling reporters in October that membership on the Joint Chiefs should “be reserved for those who have direct command and direct budgets that deal with the military.” Traditionally, the Guard chief attended Joint Chiefs of Staff meetings but was not a voting member. However, “voting” is not a central role for the Joint Chiefs, which typically seeks to reach consensus and make unanimous recommendations. NOTE: NGB is ONLY Army & Air Force National Guard.
“JOINT” Unified Combatant Commands GEN Lloyd Austin, USA GEN Charles H. Jacoby, Jr., USA GEN Phillip Breedlove, USAF ADM Samuel J. Locklear, USN Gen John F. Kelly, USMC GEN David Rodriquez, USA • A Unified Combatant Command (UCC) is a US joint military command that is composed of forces from 2 or more services and has a broad and continuing mission. • These commands are established to provide effective command and control of U.S. military forces, regardless of branch of service, in peace and war.