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The African American’s Struggles and Achievements in Agriculture University of Arkansas MLK Celebration January 19, 2007 PowerPoint Presentation
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The African American’s Struggles and Achievements in Agriculture University of Arkansas MLK Celebration January 19, 2007. Presented by Dr. Handy Williamson. Introduction. The Mayflower, Timbuktu, Nile and the Ice Age. Historical Trends. American Slavery Industry

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slide1

The African American’s Struggles and Achievements in AgricultureUniversity of Arkansas MLK Celebration

January 19, 2007

Presented by Dr. Handy Williamson

slide2

Introduction

The Mayflower, Timbuktu, Nile and the Ice Age

slide3

Historical Trends

  • American Slavery Industry
    • Primarily for agricultural slave labor
    • Secondarily for domestic servants
    • Limited use in industry
  • Post Slavery 1890 Census
    • 60% of African Americans in US were farms workers
    • 65 % of African Americans in the south were farmers
    • but also were
      • Scientists
      • Inventors
      • Educators
slide4

Beginnings of World Agriculture

Earliest known origin of Cereal Cultivation

  • Studies by Wendorf, B., Schild, R., and Close, E/1984, show African slaves brought a wealth of agricultural knowledge to America
  • Remnants of barley radiocarbon dated 17,00– 8,300 years ago
  • in the flood plains of the Nile, Africa ( pre Egyptian).
  • Agricultural tools dated 14,500 (+/- 490) also found nearby.
  • Findings: while Europe was in the Ice Age, African
  • people were raising crops of:
    • Wheat Capers
    • Chickpeas Lentils
    • Barley Dates
slide5

Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America by Lerone Bennett, Jr.

“When the human drama opened, Africans were on the scene and acting.  For a long time, in fact, the only people on the scene were Africans.  For some 600,000 years Africa and Africans led the world.  Were these people who gave the world fire and tools and cultivated grain--were they Negroes?  The ancient bones are silent.  It is possible, indeed, probable that they were dark skinned.”

slide6

Agricultural Crops

Africa & Africans Contributed Many Crops to the US

slide7

Crops of African Origin

Cotton Guerre or Cluster bean Millet

Peanut Gallia potatoes Lupine

Soybean Cowpea or Black eyes pea Broad bean

Sorghum Watermelon Lettuce

Coffee Eggplant Cardoon

Wheat Lima beans Radishes

Artichoke Red beet Leek

Asparagus Tomato Griolle

Mushroom Apple Cantaloupe

Cherry Apricot Date

slide8

Crops of African Origin

  • Presently grown and consumed world wide
  • Trans-Atlantic vs. Trans-Pacific dispersal of crops
    • Proponents on Trans-Atlantic dispersal include
      • Edgar Anderson
      • Murdock
      • Albert F Hill
  • Black indentured servants may have brought African crops
  • and agricultural practices to America
slide9

American Agriculture’s Black

Mechanical Inventions and Inventors

Over 400 inventions credited to Blacks in early years

slide10

Overview

  • African slaves brought knowledge of agricultural and practices with them to America
  • Patents could not be issued in a slave’s name
  • Credit for many inventions claimed by owners
    • Section in the Confederacy constitution addressing the
    • owners right to control his slave’s inventions.
  • Jo Anderson’s owner Cyrus McCormick is credited with
  • inventing the grain harvester. There are suspicions that
  • Anderson made substantial contributions and records do not
  • reflect the degree of his involvement.
slide11

Range of inventions

  • Horse shoes Dough kneader
  • Rotary engines Refrigerated boxcar
  • Mechanical lubrication devices Bottle caps and sealers
  • Biscuit cutter Cultivator
  • Cotton planter Potato digger
  • Corn husker Automatic gear shift
  • Riding saddles Cotton gin
  • Lawn sprinkler system Lemon squeezers
slide12

Education and Science

The pathway to freedom and equality

slide13

Benjamin Banneker 1731 – 1805

Farmer, inventor, mathematician almanac maker

Born in Ellicott, Maryland of free mother and slave father

Considered free

Attended private integrated school through 8th grade

  • Predicted the solar eclipse of 1789
  • Published the first scientific book by an African American – an almanac
    • Tide tables
    • Data on future eclipses
    • Useful medicinal products and formulas
    • Helped lay out the blueprint for Washington DC
slide14

Henry Blair 1804 – 1860

Inventor

Resident of Maryland

Evidently a free man

Was granted first patent to a black man (he was identified as a “colored” man in patent registry

  • Granted a patent for the corn planter in 1834
  • Granted a patent for the cotton planted in 1836
slide15

Frederick McKinley Jones1731 – 1805

Technician

Born in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1892

Orphaned at age 9

Quit school after 6th grade to go to work

  • Invented first application of mechanical refrigeration to rail cars and
  • trucks
  • 61 Patents.
  • Other inventions include:
    • Air conditioning for military field units
    • Refrigeration for military kitchens
    • A prototype x-ray machine
slide16

Norbert Rillieux 1806 – 1894

Inventor

Born in Louisiana to French father and African American mother

Educated in Catholic schools in Louisiana

Studied applied mechanics and taught at L’Ecole Centrale in Paris

  • Invented vacuum evaporating pan which reduced labor and improved products in the sugar refining industry in 1845
slide17

Granville T. Woods 1856 – 1910

Inventor

Born Columbus Ohio

Former education ended at age 10

Self taught in mechanics, blacksmith and electronics

  • Person credited with modernizing the electric railway car
  • Developed Induction telegraph system (Railroad telegraph)
  • Many inventions for conducting electricity
  • 50 Patents
slide18

Circumstances in Africa prior to 1861

  • Brilliant cultural and educational heritage in West Africa
  • Timbuktu and Gao were prominent cultural center of the
  • Moslem world
  • Emperor Askia Mohammed Toure of Songhay established a
  • school system from 1493 to 1512
  • University of Sankore at Timbuktu considered a major
  • institution of higher learning
slide19

Circumstances in the United States prior to 1861

  • Education for African Americans was generally prohibited
  • Benevolent owners and churches promoted education to
  • increase labor efficiency and enhance the spread of Christianity
  • Quakers advocated education of African Americans in religion and
  • occupational training
  • Whites feared slaves would read abolitionist materials.
  • Attempts of integration of some private schools was met with
  • mob resistance
slide20

The Emergence of Black Education

  • Initial emphasis was placed on practical skills, farm related
  • training and separation of the cases
  • Vocation schools and normal agricultural (A&M) colleges served
  • as training ground for prominent African American educators,
  • scientists and leaders.
  • Contributions of the earlier African American educators, scientists and leaders focused on the US agriculture sector.
  • W.E.B. Dubois advocated for higher order education and refinement for the “talented tenth.”
slide21

Agricultural College / Historically Black Land Grant University

  • 16 colleges were founded in the 19th century as land grant
  • colleges or later given this status as legislated by the federal
  • government. Today there are 17 such institutions.
  • These institutions have been the primary training grounds for
  • African Americans who have pursued careers in agricultural
  • industry, the professions and government.
  • Institutions focus on
    • Teaching Extension
    • Agricultural research International development
  • Trend setters in providing assistance to low income farmers and
  • disadvantaged in rural society
slide23

Booker T. Washington (1856 – 1915)

Educator, Leader

Born a slave in Hales Ford, Virginia

Worked in the coal mines as a young man

Attended Hampton Institute, an industrial agricultural school for African Americans. from 1872-1875

  • Founding president of Tuskegee University
  • Presidential advisor on racial problems to Theodore Roosevelt and
  • William H Taft and influenced federal appointments
  • Author of Up from Slavery, a book on his emergence from poverty to
  • national prominence
slide24

Thomas Monroe Campbell

(1883 – 1956)

Educator, Leader

Born on a farm near Bowman, Georgia

Graduate of Tuskegee Institute in 1906

  • Operated Tuskegee’s “School on Wheels” a demonstration wagon carrying improved farming implements to Negro farmers who were unable to attend school. This operation became known as the “Movable School”.
  • Appointed the first Negro Farm Demonstration Agent in the US in 1906.
  • First Negro Field Agent of the US Department of Agriculture with a territory of the seven lower southern states.
  • Author of, The Movable School Goes to the Negro Farm.
slide25

Richard David Morrison

(1910 – 2003) Educator,

Born on a farm and reared in Mississippi

Graduate of Tuskegee Institute

  • Operated Tuskegee’s “School on Wheels” a demonstration wagon carrying improved farming implements to Negro farmers who were unable to attend school.
  • Was a teacher of Vocational Agriculture during early career.
  • Appointed as a Negro Farm Demonstration Agent.
  • Was President of Alabama A & M University and a leader of the Facilities funding initiative.
  • Is highly respected for his leadership within the Land-Grant System.
slide26

Clifton R Wharton, Jr.

Leader & son of a Diplomat

BS in history from Harvard University

MA in international affairs Johns Hopkins University

MS and PhD in Economics from the University of Chicago

  • Chairman and Executive Officer of Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association and College Retirement Equities Fund, the national’s largest pension fund.
  • Outstanding career as President of Michigan State U & the SUNY System and as Deputy U.S. Secretary of State (under Warren Christopher).
  • A recognized authority on economic development in Southeast Asia and Latin America
  • First Chairman of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (AID), US Department of State.
slide27

Allie C. Felder, Jr.

Leader, Educator

BS in agriculture from Hampton University

MSC in agricultural economics and rural sociology from the University of Illinois

PhD in agricultural economics and rural sociology from Ohio State University

  • Sr Vice Pres Emeritus of the National Cooperative Business Association
  • Contributed to the human and economic development of people in India and the US
  • Director of the Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC)
  • Served as a member of the US delegation to the Foreign Agricultural Organization Conf, Rome, Italy 1977
slide28

Thomas T Williams

Educator, Leader, Economist

BS in agricultural economics from No. Carolina A&T State MSA in economics from the University of Illinois

PhD in agricultural economics from the Ohio State Univ

Post Graduate work at Case Institute of Technology

  • Southeast Regional Director of the US Department of Health and Human Services
    • Credited with establishing the Department of Ag Econ at Southern University of Louisiana where he served for 25 years
  • Also adjunct professor at Cornell and Louisiana State University
  • Served as Chairman of the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference, Tuskegee University
  • Editor of Unique Resources of the 1890 Land-Grant Institutions.
slide30

Pyramid Building and the Ancient Egyptian Civilization

  • Development of pyramids and other great monuments is traced from the mud brick beginning of the great pyramids and temples in Africa.
  • Beatrice Lumpkin in her writings document the plans, level of mathematics and technology required for pyramid building. Possible methods of construction are considered.
  • In keeping with the tradition of African scientists, a number of African American scientists have made valuable contributions to US agriculture.
slide31

George Washington Carver

1864 – 1943Scientist/Chemist

Born a slave in Diamond Grove, Missouri

He and his mother abducted by slave raiders. Mother was sold but he was ransomed by his master in exchange for a race horse

Self supporting while obtaining a high school education

Received Bachelor and Masters from Iowa State University

  • First African American on faculty at Iowa State University
  • Joined Book T Washington on faculty at Tuskegee University
  • Developed peanut butter and 82 other products
  • Research on the peanut and the soybean revolutionized the economy of the South by eliminating the dependence on cotton.
  • Developed a crop rotation system that revolutionized southern farming
  • Did not patent his discoveries. “God gave them to me, how can I sell them to someone else.”
slide32

Benjamin Banneker 1731 – 1805

Farmer, inventor, mathematician almanac maker

Born in Ellicott, Maryland of free mother and slave father

Considered free

Attended private integrated school through 8th grade

  • Predicted the solar eclipse of 1789
  • Published the first scientific book by an African American – an almanac
    • Tide tables
    • Data on future eclipses
    • Useful medicinal products and formulas
    • Helped lay out the blueprint for Washington DC
slide33

Frederick McKinley Jones1731 – 1805

Technician

Born in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1892

Orphaned at age 9

Quit school after 6th grade to go to work

  • Invented first application of mechanical refrigeration to rail cars and
  • trucks
  • 61 Patents.
  • Other inventions include:
    • Air conditioning for military field units
    • Refrigeration for military kitchens
    • A prototype x-ray machine
slide34

Percy Julian

1899 - 1975 Scientist, Chemist

Born in Birmingham, Alabama

Bachelors degree from DePauw University

Masters degree from Harvard University

PhD in Vienna Austria

  • Director of research and manager of fine chemicals at Glidden Company
  • Extracted cortisone a sterol derivative from soybeans to more economically treat arthritis
  • Discovered a way to mass produce the drug physostigmine, used to treat glaucoma
  • Perfected the mass production of sex hormones which led the way to birth control pills
slide36

Program Concepts and Thrusts

  • The beginning of Negro Farm and Home Demonstrations
  • Farmers’ Institutes
  • Community and County Fairs
  • Black fairs merging with White fairs
  • International Extension Program
  • Consulting in Togo, West Africa
  • Today: Teaching, Research, Extension and Econ Devel.
slide37

Dr. Handy Williamson, Jr., Ph.D.

Vice Provost

International Programs and Strategic Initiatives

Professor of Agricultural Economics

University of Missouri-Columbia

E-mail: williamsonha@missouri.edu

Website: http://bengal.missouri.edu/~woc33/drwilliamson/index.html