Literary terms
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Literary Terms. Figurative Language. Language that communicates ideas beyond the ordinary, literal meaning of words. **things do not mean what the words actually say Examples: metaphor, simile, idiom, personification, etc. Metaphor.

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Figurative language
Figurative Language

  • Language that communicates ideas beyond the ordinary, literal meaning of words.

    • **things do not mean what the words actually say

    • Examples: metaphor, simile, idiom, personification, etc.


  • A comparison between two objects; often says that one thing is another.

    • Ex: He is a bear on the football field!


  • A comparison between two objects using "like", "as", or "than".

    • Ex: She is as quick as a cat!


  • The repetition of the initial consonant sound.

    • Ex: Sally sells sea shells by the sea shore


  • A reference to someone or something in history or literature.

    • Ex: But I'll be hood forever I'm the new Sinatra And since I made it here


  • Giving human qualities or characteristicsto animals or objects.

    • Ex: The pen danced across the paper


  • Extreme exaggeration for effect.

    • Ex: It took me “FOREVER” to finish the project!


  • An expression common to a certain group of people.

    • Ex: Don’t bite off more than you can chew.


  • The character who opposes the hero; provides the story’s conflict

    • Ex: the wolf in “The Three Little Pigs”


  • the main character in a story, novel, drama, or other literary work; the character that the reader or audience empathizes with

    • Jack in “Jack and the Beanstalk”

Point of view
Point of View

  • 1st person-story is being told by a character within the story (I, we, us)

  • 2ndperson-speaking to “you”; often as in a letter or directions

  • 3rd person limited-outside narrator; reader is informed of all ACTIONS of characters and thoughts of 1character

  • 3rd person omniscient – narrator is all-knowing; reader is informed of all thoughts and actions of characters


  • Hints or clues as to what is going to happen later in a story

    • Example: In “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” - the description of Brom’s horse Daredevil that mentions he is full of mischief and mettle just like his owner

    • (hints that the horse and rider are/will be up to something)


  • the use of words and phrases to create a mental picture

    • Example: There was a tree at that corner, a straight but little tree with slim branches and shiny dark leaves. – from “The Osage Orange Tree”


  • Characterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.

    • Stated Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is.

      • Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.”

    • Implied Characterization shows things that reveal the personality of a character.

Characterization continued
Characterization continued…

  • There are five different methods of implied characterization:

    • Speech: What does the character say? How does the character speak?

    • Thoughts: What is revealed through the character’s private thoughts and feelings?

    • Effect on others toward the character: What is revealed through the character’s effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character?

    • Actions: What does the character do? How does the character behave?

    • Looks: What does the character look like? How does the character dress?

Flat characters
Flat Characters

  • Are uncomplicated and do not change throughout the course of a work

    • Example: Injun Joe

Round characters
Round Characters

  • are complex and undergo development/ change

    • sometimes extreme changes to surprise the reader

    • Example: Tom Sawyer, Huck Finn


  • something which represents something else besides itself

    • Example:

      The dove, with olive branch in beak,Glides over all the landSearching for a place to light.Storms of war linger on every hand,Everywhere the hawk does fight.

    • The dove is a symbol of peace, and the hawk is a symbol of war. Using them in poetry gives an image without having to explain in detail.


  • Verbal irony: saying something, but meaning the opposite (sarcasm)

    • Example- I LOVE it when people talk as I try to teach!!

  • Situational irony: the opposite of what was expected happens

    • Example- the fire house catches on fire

  • Dramatic irony: where the audience is aware of a situation and the characters are not

    • Example- you see the murderer in the closet, the young babysitter does not, she goes into the room and …