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Economics 2.4.1 Understands and analyzes the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources. Cash crops – crop sold for money at market “ Cottonocracy ”- name for wealthy planters who made their money from cotton in the mid-1800s Famine – severe food shortage

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economics 2 4 1 understands and analyzes the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources
Economics 2.4.1Understands and analyzes the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources
  • Cash crops – crop sold for money at market
  • “Cottonocracy”- name for wealthy planters who made their money from cotton in the mid-1800s
  • Famine – severe food shortage
  • Inflation – a rise in prices and a decrease in the value of money
  • Plantation – large estate farmed by many workers
  • Sustainability – quality of something keeping itself going without intervention
a interchangeable parts mass production
A. Interchangeable Parts & Mass Production
  • 1. Interchangeable parts & Mass production
  • 2. Jefferson’s embargo w/ Britain & France (1807) and then the War of 1812 brought about a halt in trade
  • 3. They needed goods that didn’t need to be imported; the Industrial Revolution began in the U.S.
slater s mill on the blackwater river
Slater’s Mill on the Blackwater River

4. Samuel Slater started the

First successful mechanized

Textile factory in America.

b cotton engine or gin
B. Cotton Engine or ‘Gin’
  • Developed by Eli Whitney in 1793
african americans in the north

African Americans in the North met discrimination

  • Discrimination is a policy or attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people.
  • African Americans were denied “the ballot-box, the jury box, the halls of the legislature, the army, the public lands, the school, and the church.”
  • African Americans had trouble finding good jobs.

African Americans in the North met some success.

  • Some African Americans found success owning their own businesses.
  • Some African Americans became successful professionals.
African Americans in the North

Chapter 14, Section 2

who made up southern society
Who Made Up Southern Society?

Chapter 14, Section 4

white southern society
White Southern Society

Chapter 14, Section 4

The wealthy

  • A planter was someone who owned at least 20 slaves.
  • Only one white southerner in 30 belonged to a planter family.
  • Less than 1 percent owned 50 or more slaves. These wealthy families were called the “cottonocracy.”

Small farmers

  • About 75 percent of southern whites were small farmers.
  • They owned the land they farmed.
  • These “plain folk” might own one or two slaves.
  • Plain folk worked with their slaves in the fields.

Poor whites

  • They did not own the land they farmed. They rented it.
  • Poor whites often lived in the hilly, wooded areas of the South.
free african americans
Free African Americans

Chapter 14, Section 4

Most free African Americans were descendants of slaves freed during and after the American Revolution. Others had bought their freedom.

Slave owners feared that free African Americans might set a bad example for enslaved African Americans.

  • They might encourage slaves to rebel.
  • They proved African Americans could take care of themselves.

Southern states passed laws to make life harder for free African Americans.

  • Free African Americans were not allowed to travel or vote.
  • In some states, they either had to move out of the state or let themselves be enslaved.
laws and practices restricted the freedom of enslaved african americans
Laws and Practices Restricted the Freedom of Enslaved African Americans

Chapter 14, Section 4

  • Conditions varied from plantation to plantation.
  • Slaves generally worked long, hard days—up to 16 hours a day.
  • Since southern laws did not recognize slave marriages or slave families, it was hard for African Americans to keep their families together. On some large plantations, extended families—grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins—often did manage to form close-knit groups.
  • Some planters allowed white ministers to preach to their slaves.
african americans resisted slavery
African Americans Resisted Slavery

Chapter 14, Section 4

  • Some African Americans struck back against slavery as the opportunity presented itself, such as by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food.
  • Many enslaved African Americans tried to escape to the North.
  • A few African Americans used violence to resist the slave system. For example Denmark Vesey, a free man, planned a revolt. However, he was betrayed before the revolt began.
  • Nat Turner, an African American preacher, led a major revolt. He led his followers through Virginia, killing many whites. In hunting him down, whites killed many innocent African Americans before they found and hanged Turner.
the south becomes an agricultural economy


Growing Area



a wide band from South Carolina through Alabama and Mississippi to Texas

  • promoted the plantation system and slavery


coasts of South Carolina and Georgia

  • required expensive irrigation and drainage systems
  • promoted the plantation system

Sugar Cane

Louisiana and Texas

  • required expensive irrigation and drainage systems
  • promoted the plantation system


Virginia, North Carolina, and Kentucky

  • Usually grown on small farms
The South Becomes an Agricultural Economy

Chapter 14, Section 3

the economic relationship between north and south
The Economic Relationship Between North and South

Chapter 14, Section 3

Southern industry remained small.

  • agricultural tools—cotton gins, planters, and plows
  • other agricultural goods—ironware, hoes, and hemp for bags
  • cheap cotton cloth
  • Tredegar Iron Works of Richmond, Virginia—railroad equipment, machinery, tools, cannons
  • flour mills

However, the South had little industry compared with the North. The South depended on the North and on Europe.

  • loans from northern banks
  • northern furniture, tools, and machines
the cotton gin
The Cotton Gin

Chapter 14, Section 3

  • Textile mills in the North and in Britain needed more and more raw cotton to make cloth.
  • Southern planters could grow plenty of cotton, but removing the seeds by hand was a slow process.
  • Eli Whitney built a machine to clean cotton—the cotton engine, or gin. It had rollers with wire teeth that separated the seeds from the fibers. One worker using a gin could do the work of 50 people cleaning cotton by hand.
  • The cotton gin led to a boom in cotton production.
  • Cotton plants wore out the soil, so planters began to look for fresh land. By the 1850s, cotton plantations extended in a wide band from the East Coast westward to Texas. This area became known as the Cotton Kingdom.
  • As the Cotton Kingdom spread, so did slavery.
iii the need for slave labor increased
iii. The need for slave labor increased
  • Cotton is labor intensive—even with the cotton gin.
  • As demand increased, labor had to increase to meet demand.
  • The more cotton you could produce the more money you could make.
v westward expansion
v. Westward Expansion
  • Farmers can’t go eastward, so they go west.
  • They run into the frontier and the Northwest Land Ordinance
  • Previously semi-deserted territories quickly become populated and some are soon ready to apply for statehood.
A. Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state
  • B. Threatens the balance in congress—11 free states and 11 slave states already exist
  • C. Henry clay proposes:
    • i. Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state
    • ii. Louisiana Territory split: above the 36 30’ north latitude slavery is illegal; below slavery is legal—except Missouri
a background
a. background
  • I. By 1849 California’s population exceeds 100,000 people
  • II. Applies as a free state
  • III. Disruption erupts again (most of California is below the 36 30’ line)
  • IV. Henry Clay thinks he has solved the issue forever this time with the 1850 compromise—but it isn’t passed
  • I. Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas
  • II. California as a free state
  • III. Utah and New Mexico to decide themselves (popular sovereignty)
  • IV. Trading of slaves—but not slavery—banned in D.C.
  • V. Stricter fugitive slave law
i fugitive slave laws
I. Fugitive Slave Laws
  • a. Slaveholders or their agents could seize a slave in the North for return
  • b. Slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury or to testify on their own behalf
  • c. Federal marshals had to help in the recapture of slaves
  • d. Anyone found helping an escaped slave was fined $1,000 and/or imprisoned for 6 months.
  • e. Effect: increased abolitionist feelings in the North.
ii personal liberty laws
II. Personal Liberty Laws
  • A. Passed in the North to combat the Fugitive slave laws
  • B. Forbid state officials from assisting in captures
  • C. Activated Abolistionists in the North.
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
iv the need for land increased
As the demand for cotton increased more and more farmers started to grow it and cotton farms steadily spread

Farmers would grow cotton until their field gave out and then move to another field.

Because of this, A LOT of land was needed

iv. The need for land increased