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Commerce 2BA3 Leadership Week 11 (Part A). Dr. Teal McAteer DeGroote School of Business McMaster University. What is Leadership?. The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. Formal vs. Informal. Formal Legitimacy

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Commerce 2BA3 Leadership Week 11 (Part A)

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commerce 2ba3 leadership week 11 part a

Commerce 2BA3LeadershipWeek 11 (Part A)

Dr. Teal McAteer

DeGroote School of Business

McMaster University

what is leadership
What is Leadership?
  • The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context.
formal vs informal
Formal vs. Informal
  • Formal
    • Legitimacy
    • Role/position
  • Informal
    • No legitimate title
    • Positive power always
    • Critical knowledge and experience
leaders versus managers
Leaders versus Managers
  • The role of the leader and the role of the manager are not the same.
  • Is it possible to be a manager yet not have influence?
transformational vs transactional
Transformational vs Transactional
  • Transformational
    • Arouse intense feelings
    • Inspirational
    • Rely on personal sources of power
    • Charisma
  • Transactional
    • Motivate by exchanging rewards for services
    • Manager-like role
universal leader influence
Universal Leader Influence

Universal Trait Theories or Approaches

- belief that certain individuals are destined

to be leaders regardless of the situation.

- traits: individual characteristics such as

physical attributes, intellectual ability, and


-limitations of the trait approach

universal leader influence cont
Universal Leader Influence cont.

Universal Behaviour Theories/Approaches

Task Leader

- A leader who is concerned with

accomplishing a task by organizing

others, planning strategy, and dividing


Social-emotional Leader

- A leader who is concerned with reducing

tension, patching up disagreements, and

maintaining morale.

The Ohio State Studies

- Initiating Consideration: the extent to

which a leader is approachable and shows

personal concern for employees

- Initiating Structure: the degree to which a

leader concentrates on group goal


- Overall study effects

situation contingent leader influence
Situation-Contingent Leader Influence

Contingency Trait Theories/Approaches

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

- The association between leadership

orientation and group effectiveness is

contingent on how favourable the

situation is for exerting influence

1.Leadership Orientation

2.Situational Favourableness

Leadership Orientation

- Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale

- LPC: A current of past co-worker with

whom a leader has had a difficult time

accomplishing a task.

  • Situational Favourableness

- leader-member relations

- task structure

- position power

3. The Contingency Model (Exhibit 9.2, p. 306)

situation contingent leader influence cont
Situation Contingent Leader Influence cont..

Contingency Behaviour Theories

House’s Path-Goal Theory

- This theory is concerned with the

situations under which various leader

behaviours are most effective.

1. Leader Behaviour

2. Situational Factors

House’s Path-Goal Theory cont..

1. Leader Behaviour

- Directive behaviour

- Supportive behaviour

- Participative behaviour

- Achievement-oriented behaviour

2. Situational Factors

Employee Characteristics:

- level of authoritarianism

- locus of control

- level of ability

Environmental Factors

- nature of the task

- formal authority

3. The Path-Goal Model (Exh. 9.3, p. 308)

Contingency Behaviour Theories cont..

1. What is Participative Leadership?

- involving employees in making

work-related decisions

2. Advantages of Participative Leadership

- motivation

- quality

- acceptance

3. Problems with Participative Leadership

- time and energy

- loss of power

- lack of receptivity or knowledge

Vroom and Jago’s Model of Participative Leadership

- specifies when leaders should use

participation and to what extent they

should use it.

- model suggests various degrees of

participation that a leader can exhibit

- range: AI, AII, CI, CII, GII (A for autocratic;

C for consultative; G fro group)

- model (Exh. 9.5, p. 287)

alternative theories of leadership
Alternative Theories of Leadership
  • Leader-Member Exchange (LNX) Theory

- A theory of leadership that focuses on

the quality of the relationship that

develops between a leader and an


2. Developmental Leadership

- A style of leadership that involves

working with organizational members as

partners and using persuasion and

negotiation rather than formal power and

authority to achieve high levels of

commitment rather than compliance.

- self-management

- empowerment

- persuasion and negotiation

3. Strategic Leadership

- Leadership that involves the ability to

anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility,

think strategically, and work with others

to initiate changes that will create a

viable future for the organization

4. Global Leadership

- A set of leadership capabilities required

to function effectively in different cultures

and the ability to cross language, social,

economic, and political borders.


-personal character



neutralizers and substitutes for leadership
Neutralizers and Substitutes for Leadership

Neutralizers of Leadership

-factors in the work setting that reduce a

leader’s opportunity to exercise influence

(employee, task and organizational factors)

Substitutes for Leadership

- factors in the work setting that can take

the place of active leadership, making it

unnecessary or redundant.

(employee, task and organizational factors)