Diction! Why THAT word? Why THAT choice?
Aphorism • A short, pithy instructive saying; a brief statement of a principal (maxim, credo) • “The first rule of Fight Club is you do not talk about Fight Club.” –Tyler Durden, Fight Club • “We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful what we pretend to be.” –Kurt Vonnegut, Mother Night Link to audio/video clip? (if possible)
Irony The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning (in an unexpected situation). Ex. An ambulance driver rushes to the scene of an accident, only to run the victim over. It was ironic that the fire station burned down
Allusion A passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication. “ The woman’s love for shoe shopping is her Achilles Heel.”
RHETORICAL QUESTION • A question asked merely for effect with no answer expected. The answer may be obvious or immediately provided by the questioner. • "If practice makes perfect, and no one's perfect, then why practice?"(Billy Corgan)
Litotes/understatement Litotes are figures of speech in which a statement is expressed through an understatement. (In the example, “not bad” is a litote to “amazing” because it is an understatement considering I got an A+!) Me Hmmm. It’s not bad . Look at my amazing essay!
Paradox A statement that seems contradictory but actually expresses some truth and/or possibility. Examples: If someone says, “I always lie,” are they telling the truth or lying? This is a more technical example of a paradox. Saying a man can drown in the fountain of eternal life is also an example of a paradox, but with a more symbolic core.
MALAPROPISM -the unintentional misuse of a word by confusion with one of similar sound EX: During World War Two, the United States formed an appliance with the Soviet Union and Great Britain. ( “appliance” should be “alliance”)
Onomatopoeia The formation of a word by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent Knock-knock Who's there? Boo? Boo who? Don't cry, I was only joking
Also known as a paronomasia, a Pun is a Play on words that gives the reader more than one meaning in one set diction. PUN When people first heard of the ABS, it was braking news. Andreas - Athens, Greece
Synecdoche Substituting the part for the whole or whole for the part “All hands on deck.” (part for a whole) “The world treated him badly.” (whole for a part)
Metonymy -Where a word is replaced by a word closely associated to it. • “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears!” – Mark Antony, Julius Caesar
Hyperbole/Overstatement “I have a ton of homework.” “I could sleep for a year.” “I’ve told you that a million times.” “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.” A figure of speech in which an obvious and intentional exaggeration, not to be taken literally, is used for emphasis or effect. Hyperboles are mainly used to add humor to the piece. By using exaggerations, the statement has a stronger effect.
Oxymoron I must say this assignment is pretty ugly, but at least this slide gets an A+ a figure of speech by which a locution produces an incongruous, seemingly self-contradictory effect.
Metaphor • The use of a word or phrase to refer to something that it isn’t, invoking a direct similarity between the word or phrase used and the thing described, and in the case of English without the words “like” or “as”; • Ex.) The noise is music to my ears
Simile • A figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between two different things using like or as. • Ex.) Love is like an onion, and you peel away layer after stinky layer until you're just weeping over the sink.
PERSONIFICATION DEFINITION: Figure which represents abstractions or inanimate objects with human qualities, including physical, emotional, and spiritual; the application of human attributes or abilities to nonhuman entities. EXAMPLE: "Once again, the heart of Americais heavy. The spirit of America weeps for a tragedy that denies the very meaning of our land." -- Lyndon Baines Johnson
Other Terms: Juxtaposition Idiom Denotation Connotation Euphemism Extended Metaphor Motif (repeated or related terms)