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Where are we up to? Measuring Social Inclusion Peter Huxley PhD King’s College London Institute of Psychiatry Social Care Workforce Research Unit. Measuring Social Inclusion. What is social inclusion? Social inclusion can be measured within life domains

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Where are we up to?

Measuring Social Inclusion

Peter Huxley PhD

King’s College London

Institute of Psychiatry

Social Care Workforce Research Unit

measuring social inclusion

Measuring Social Inclusion

What is social inclusion?

Social inclusion can be measured within life domains

Social inclusion can be measured subjectively

Social inclusion can be measured objectively

(independently verifiable)

measuring social inclusion1
Measuring Social Inclusion

Social inclusion can be defined in terms of the success of one or more of the following four systems of 'integration':

  • the democratic and legal system which promotes civic integration;
  • the labour market which promotes economic integration;
  • the welfare state system promoting social integration;
  • and the family and community system, which promotes interpersonal integration.
measuring social inclusion2
Measuring Social Inclusion

“One’s sense of belonging in society depends on all four systems. Civic integration means being an equal citizen in a democratic system. Economic integration means having a job, having a valued economic function, being able to pay your way. Social integration means being able to avail oneself of the social services provided by the state. Interpersonal integration means having family and friends, neighbours and social networks to provide care and companionship and moral support when these are needed. All four systems are therefore important. In a way the four systems are complementary: when one or two are weak the others need to be strong. And the worst off are those for whom all systems have failed”

(Commins, 1993, p4).

measuring social inclusion3
Measuring Social Inclusion
  • Social inclusion – “the extent to which people are able to participate fully in the institutions of society” – by choice
  • Quality of life domains - choice
  • Work – open employment
  • Housing – independent living, suitable accommodation
  • Finances – high income, maximum benefit
  • Family relationships – level of contact
  • Social relationships – choice of friends
  • Leisure activity – community participation
  • Safety – not at risk
  • Physical and mental health – access to care, met need
measuring social inclusion4
Measuring Social Inclusion

Social inclusion and access to services

  • Empowerment (self-esteem, mastery, information and consultation)
  • Participation in design and review of services delivered to self and others
  • Users employed in the service
figure 2 ghq mean scores by levels of financial well being 1 terrible 7 delighted
Figure 2: GHQ mean scores by levels of financial well-being(1 = Terrible, 7= Delighted)
measuring social inclusion5
Measuring Social Inclusion
  • The group who had housing improvements (cf those who had not) had higher subjective well-being after 22 months in:-
  • living situation (p<0.001)
  • finances (p<0.01)
  • physical health (p<.001)
  • and in overall well-being (p<0.001)
measuring social inclusion6

Measuring Social Inclusion

Why use objective social indicators?

[Objective - independently verifiable]

Demonstrate inclusion

Improvement over time

Valued social goals

Compare with the general population

Assess service performance

Support funding arguments

measuring social inclusion7

Measuring Social Inclusion

Issues in the use of social indicators

Cultural diversity



Gender and age

Phraseology issues

Disability issues

Coding issues

Don’t necessarily map onto individual goals

measuring social inclusion8
Measuring Social Inclusion
  • Social contact

Visits with friends, family or neighbours

Mental health problems – 80%

No mental health problems – 87%

(Baum et al 2000)

Visits with friends last week

Mental health problems – 71%

No mental health problems – 78%

(ESRC 2001)

measuring social inclusion9
Measuring Social Inclusion
  • Social contact
  • no-one to turn to for help - 33%
  • have no close friend - 4 X national average
  • no close friend - 36%

(Turton 2002; Huxley and Thornicroft 2001)

measuring social inclusion10
Measuring Social Inclusion
  • People with severe illness or long term unemployment spend about 60% of their time alone
  • People with severe illness spend only1% of their waking time in contact with paid helpers
  • 50% of waking hours (ex eating etc) watching TV
  • 2.5 times (more than the LTU) people with severe illness want to do things alone (24%)

(Turton 2002)

measuring social inclusion11
Measuring Social Inclusion


  • employment level of psychiatric patient populations rarely reaches more than 10%
  • when working they work fewer hours(Self-reported mental health problems in the LFS - total weekly 25; ONS PMS – 28; compared to 38 average)
  • at a lower hourly rate

(Self-reported mental health problems in the LFS – Hourly rate £6.60: ONS PMS <£4; compared to £7.30 average)

(Meltzer et al , 1995; Evans and Huxley, 2000; Labour Force Survey 2004).

measuring social inclusion achieving nvq2 or equivalent national figure 70
Measuring Social InclusionAchieving NVQ2 or equivalentNational figure = 70%
measuring social inclusion12

Measuring Social Inclusion

(In the past three years) have you attended any courses or received any instruction or tuition in driving, in playing a musical instrument, in an art or craft, in a sport or in

any practical skill? (include all courses and periods of instruction or tuition, however short)

(In the past three years) have you attended any evening classes?

(In the past three years) have you deliberately tried to improve your knowledge about anything, taught yourself

measuring social inclusion13

Measuring Social Inclusion

(In the past three years) have you been on any taught courses designed to help you develop skills that you might use in a job? (include all courses however short)

(In the past three years) have you carried out any learning which has involved working on your own package of materials provided by an employer, college, commercial organisation or other training provider?

measuring social inclusion14

Measuring Social Inclusion

1 degree level qualification including, foundation degree, graduate membership of a professional institute or PGCE, or higher

2 diploma in higher education





7 teaching qualification (excluding PGCE)

8 nursing or other medical qualification

9 other higher education qualification below degree level

10 A-level/Vocational A Level or equivalent

12 NVQ/SVQ What is your highest level of full NVQ/SVQ? (level 1 – 5; don’t know)

13 GNVQ/GSVQ Is your highest GNVQ/GSVQ at advanced, intermediate, foundation, don’t know

14 AS-level

17 SCE standard

18 GCSE/Vocational GCSE

20 RSA

21 City & Guilds

22 YT Certificate

23 any other professional / vocational qualification / foreign qualifications

26 National Qualifications (Scotland)

27 Don’t Know

measuring social inclusion participation

Measuring Social InclusionParticipation

Political parties

Trade unions (including student unions)

Environmental groups

Parent-teacher association or school association

Tenants' or residents' group or neighbourhood watch

Education, arts, music or singing group (including evening classes)

Religious group or church organisation

Charity, voluntary or community group

Group for elderly or older people (eg lunch club)

Youth group (eg scouts, guides, youth club)

Women's institute or Townswomen's Guild or Women's group

Social club (including working men's club, Rotary club)

Sports club, gym, exercise or dance group

Other group or organisation

measuring social inclusion15

Measuring Social Inclusion

Participation: 100 service users compared to the local population

feel leisure opportunities are restricted (cf 64)

83 want a more active social life (cf 62)

47 want to participate more fully in family activities (cf 28)

56 not a member of community groups ( cf 47)

Satisfaction with leisure activity 3.7 (cf 4.3) (p<0.001)

measuring social inclusion16

Measuring Social Inclusion

Service users in South Manchester

compared to the local population

5% employed compared to….. 61%

Average working week 24 hours compared to.. 38 hours

Average monthly income £755 compared to….£369

53% seen a friend in the last week compared to…. 80%

57% have a close friend compared to ……95%

16% contact with relatives less than monthly….3%

measuring social inclusion conclusions

Measuring Social InclusionConclusions

Subjective measures

Objective measures

Comprehensive inclusion

Domain specific inclusion

Individual goals and valued roles

Local comparisons

Questions and codes

Ease of access



measuring social inclusion sources

Measuring Social InclusionSources

General Household Survey

GHS Social Capital Module

British Crime Survey

Home Office Citizenship Survey

Labour Force Survey

British Social Attitudes Survey

Health Survey for England

Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

National Adult Learning Survey


measuring social inclusion17

Measuring Social Inclusion

The Question Bank

The UK Data Archive

[email protected]

[email protected]