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Airspace. Going From Point A to Point G. Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame. Roadmap. Controlled Airspace Uncontrolled Airspace Special Use Airspace Other Airspace. Types of Airspace. Controlled Class A – Altitude

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airspace

Airspace

Going From Point A to Point G

Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative

By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”

roadmap
Roadmap
  • Controlled Airspace
  • Uncontrolled Airspace
  • Special Use Airspace
  • Other Airspace
types of airspace
Types of Airspace
  • Controlled
    • Class A – Altitude
    • Class B – Big / Boeing
    • Class C – Crowded
    • Class D – Dialogue
    • Class E – Everything Else
  • Uncontrolled
    • Class G – Go for it
types of airspace cont
Types of Airspace (cont.)
  • Special Use
    • Restricted Airspace
    • Prohibited Airspace
    • Military Operations Area (MOA)
    • Warning Area
    • Alert Area
    • Controlled Firing Area
types of airspace cont1
Types of Airspace (cont.)
  • Other Airspace
    • Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
class a alpha
Class A (Alpha)
  • Generally, the airspace from 18,000 MSL up to FL600
class a regulations
Class A Regulations
  • IFR Only
    • IFR Clearance/Equipment
  • No visibility or cloud clearance requirements
class b bravo
Class B (Bravo)
  • Generally, the airspace from the surface to 10,000 MSL surrounding the nations busiest airports
  • Individually tailored
    • Multi-Layered
      • Looks like upside down wedding cake
class b regulations
Class B Regulations
  • ATC Clearance Required
    • Mode C Transponder within 30NM veil
    • Radio
  • 250-knot speed limit within Class B
  • 200-knot under Class B or in corridor
  • Private Pilot, or Endorsed Student Certificate*
  • 3SM visibility
  • No cloud clearance requirement

*Some Class B airports prohibits student pilots

class c charlie
Class C (Charlie)
  • Generally, the airspace from the surface to 4,000 AGL above an airport
  • One Layer
    • Individually Tailored
      • 5NM core
      • 10NM shelf area from 1,200 AGL to 4,000 AGL
class c regulations
Class C Regulations
  • IFR: Clearance Required
  • VFR: Radio Contact
  • Mode C inside or above (up to 10,000 MSL)
  • 200-knot speed limit below 2,500 AGL within 4NM of airport
  • Student Certificate
  • 3SM visibility
  • Cloud Clearance
    • 500 Below / 1,000 Above / 2,000 Horizontal
  • Guarantees IFR, Special VFR, and Runway separation
    • VFR time permitting
  • Traffic Advisories
class d delta
Class D (Delta)
  • Generally, the airspace from the surface up to 2,500 AGL
  • Individually tailored
    • Cylinder
      • Based upon the instrument procedures in place
class d regulations
Class D Regulations
  • IFR: Clearance Required
  • VFR: Radio Contact
  • 200-knot speed limit below 2,500 AGL within 4NM of airport
  • Student Certificate
  • 3SM visibility
  • Cloud Clearance
    • 500 Below / 1,000 Above / 2,000 Horizontal
  • Guarantees IFR, Special VFR, and Runway separation
  • Traffic Advisories workload permitting
class e
Class E
  • Generally, all controlled airspace that is not Class A, B, C or D
  • Class E below 14,500 MSL is charted
    • Surface Area
    • Extension to existing surface area
    • Transition
      • Beginning at 700 or 1,200* AGL
    • Federal Airways
      • Extend upward from 1,200 AGL to 17,999 MSL

*Almost all Class E airspace East of the Rockies begins at 1,200 AGL

class e regulations
Class E Regulations
  • IFR: Clearance/Comm Required
  • Student Certificate

Guarantees IFR and Special VFR separation

  • Traffic Advisories workload permitting
  • Below 10,000 MSL
  • 3SM visibility
  • Cloud Clearance
    • 500 below
    • 1,000 above
    • 2,000 horizontal
  • 10,000 MSL and above
  • 5SM visibility
  • Cloud Clearance
    • 1,000 below
    • 1,000 above
    • 1SM horizontal
class g golf
Class G (Golf)
  • Airspace that has not been classified as Class A, B, C, D or E
class g regulations
Class G Regulations
  • Student Certificate
  • Traffic Advisories workload permitting
restricted area
Restricted Area
  • Aircraft subject to restrictions
  • Unusual, often invisible, hazards to aircraft such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles
  • Authorization from controlling agency
    • If IFR, ATC will coordinate
    • IF VFR, pilot’s responsibility
prohibited airspace
Prohibited Airspace
  • Aircraft are prohibited
  • Established for national security or other reasons associated with national welfare
military operations area moa
Military Operations Area (MOA)
  • Purpose is to separate IFR traffic from military training activity
    • If IFR, ATC will coordinate
    • If VFR, no authorization is necessary – proceed with caution
  • Activities include (but not limited to): air combat tactics, air intercepts, aerobatics, formation training, and low-altitude tactics
warning area
Warning Area
  • Airspace of defined dimensions, extending from 3NM outward from the coast of the U.S.
  • Purpose is to warn nonparticipating pilots of potential danger
alert area
Alert Area
  • Depicted on aeronautical charts to inform nonparticipating pilots of areas that may contain a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aerial activity
  • No authorization required – proceed with caution
  • Both participating and nonparticipating pilots are equally responsible
controlled firing area
Controlled Firing Area
  • Uncharted areas containing activities that, if not conducted in a controlled environment, could be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft
  • All activities suspended when an aircraft is spotted that might be approaching
temporary flight restriction tfr
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
  • Purpose
    • Protect persons and property in the air or on the surface
    • National Disasters
    • Protect President, VP, other important figures
  • Issued by NOTAM (Notice to Airmen)